Etheostoma histrio - (Jordan and Gilbert, 1887)
Harlequin Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma histrio Jordan and Gilbert in Gilbert, 1887 (TSN 168398)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100929
Element Code: AFCQC02310
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma histrio
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Florida (S1), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S2), Oklahoma (S3), Tennessee (S4S5), Texas (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is scattered throughout lower Mississippi River tributaries west (in the Red and Arkansas river drainages to eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas, and north to southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and western Kentucky; it also occurs in isolated areas in the Wabash River drainage, Illinois and Indiana, and Green River system, Kentucky; this darter also occurs in Gulf Coast drainages from Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, to Neches River, Texas (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is widely distributed but generally uncommon (Page and Burr 2011). Recently it has been recognized as more common than previously thought.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include habitat destruction or modification such as river channelization and pollution.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Better information is needed on current distribution and abundance.

Protection Needs: Species would benefit from increased protection of occupied waters.

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species is scattered throughout lower Mississippi River tributaries west (in the Red and Arkansas river drainages to eastern Oklahoma and eastern Texas, and north to southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and western Kentucky; it also occurs in isolated areas in the Wabash River drainage, Illinois and Indiana, and Green River system, Kentucky; this darter also occurs in Gulf Coast drainages from Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, to Neches River, Texas (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Escambia (12033), Santa Rosa (12113)
IL Coles (17029), Cumberland (17035)*, Gallatin (17059)*, Jasper (17079)*, Wabash (17185), White (17193)
IN Bartholomew (18005), Daviess (18027), Dubois (18037), Gibson (18051), Greene (18055), Jackson (18071), Johnson (18081), Knox (18083), Lawrence (18093), Martin (18101), Pike (18125), Posey (18129), Shelby (18145), Washington (18175)
MO Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Dunklin (29069), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Ripley (29181), Scott (29201), Stoddard (29207)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Conecuh (03140301), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)*, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Embarras (05120112)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Driftwood (05120204)+, Flatrock-Haw (05120205)+, Upper East Fork White (05120206)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+*
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Whitewater (07140107)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Little Tallahatchie (08030201)*, Coldwater (08030204)*, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Little (08040304), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Buffalo (08060206), Tickfaw (08070203), Bayou Teche (08080102), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009)*, Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Petit Jean (11110204), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)*, Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (darter).
Reproduction Comments: Ripe females have been observed in Texas and Mississippi in February and March (Kuehne and Barbour 1983), mid-February to late March in Texas (Hubbs 1985).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes sand and gravel runs of small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011). Above the Fall Line this darter occurs most often in riffles with coarse gravel substrate; in lowland streams, it often occurs over sand among brush and detritus where logjams have created strong mid-stream currents.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
Help
Biological Research Needs: Research is needed on the ecology of the species, especially habitat requirements.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Jun2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Sahley, C., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Burr, B.M. 1991. The fishes of Illinois: an overview of a dynamic fauna. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 34:417-427.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Forbes, S.A. and R.E. Richardson. 1908. The fishes of Illinois. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Urbana, IL. 357pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK. 1985. DARTER REPRODUCTIVE SEASONS. COPEIA 1985(1): 56-68.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. 1985. Present status and critical habitat for Illinois populations of the pugnose shiner, bluehead shiner, and harlequin darter. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv., Section of Faunistic Survey and Insect Identification Technical Report 1985(8), submitted to the Ill. Dept. Cons., Springfield, IL 12pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas. 1993. Letter to Robert Anderson re Fish Collection Localities in Indiana. 2 pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 314pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

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