Etheostoma spectabile - (Agassiz, 1854)
Orangethroat Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz, 1854) (TSN 168368)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102592
Element Code: AFCQC02720
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Ceas, P. A. 1997. Systematic studies of the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile complex (Percidae; subgenus Oligocephalus). Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. viii + 157 pp.
Concept Reference Code: U97CEA01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma spectabile
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly there were five named subspecies: uniporum, fragi, pulchellum, squamosum, and spectabile, the latter "with several races" (Page and Burr 1991). Ceas and Page (1997) elevated uniporum and fragi to species status and split off four new species (E. burri, E. tecumsehi, E. kantuckeense, and E. bison) from the southeastern and southcentral parts of the range of E. spectabile. Ceas (1997) recognized several undescribed species in this complex: Ozark darter, headwater darter (now E. lawrencei), Sheltowee darter, Cumberland darter, and Caney Fork darter.

Includes Boleosoma phlox Cope (Page 1983). Has hybridized in Kansas with Percina caprodes (now. P. fulvitaenia); hybridization attributed to flood-related habitat alteration (Hubbs et al. 1988). Hybridizes with E. radiosum in some areas.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Jan2012
Global Status Last Changed: 16Feb2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S4), Colorado (S3), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Michigan (S1), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S3), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Wyoming (S1)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Lake Erie and Mississippi River basins, from southeastern Michigan and Ohio to eastern Wyoming, and southward to Tennessee and northern Texas; Gulf of Mexico drainages (Trinity River to San Antonio River) of Texas, mostly on the Edwards Plateau (Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies pulchellum (Ceas 1997): Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, and Guadalupe river systems on the "Comannche" and Edwards plateaus southeastward to the Balcones Escarpment in Texas; northern tributaries of the Red River from the Wachita Mountains eastward to the Little River in Arkansas; the North Canadian River system in western Oklahoma; the Arkansas River system near Garden City, Kansas, to the Ozark escarpment west of Little Rock, Arkansas (except for streams draining the Springfield Plateau, but including the upper Neosho River system in the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas before it enters the Springfield Plateau), the Bayou des Arc and Little Red river systems of the lower White River, Arkansas; the Republican-Kansas river system of Kansas, eastern Colorado, and southern Nebraska; and the North Platte River of western Nebraska.

Subspecies squamosum (Ceas 1997): endemic to the Springfield Plateau; occurs in the Spring-Grand river system in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, northwestern Arkansas, and southwestern Missouri, and in the Illinois River system of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas.

Subspecies spectabile (Ceas 1997): east of the Mississippi river, occurs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and western Tennessee (Obion River, Obion County); and nearly all stream systems in Kentucky exclusive of the Cumberland, Dix (Kentucky drainage), Green, Salt, and Tennessee river systems; west of the Mississippi River, occurs in the Osage River system in Missouri and Kansas, the Gasconade, Meramec, and St. Francis river systems in Missouri, and other smaller streams in Iowa and Missouri that drain directly into the Mississippi or lower Missouri rivers; populations in the Missouri River system from the confluence of the Missouri and Osage rivers in Missouri to the Wakarusa River, Douglas County, Kansas, represent a large contact zone of E. s. pulchellum x E. s. spectabile intergrades.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is abundant in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Lake Erie and Mississippi River basins, from southeastern Michigan and Ohio to eastern Wyoming, and southward to Tennessee and northern Texas; Gulf of Mexico drainages (Trinity River to San Antonio River) of Texas, mostly on the Edwards Plateau (Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies pulchellum (Ceas 1997): Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, and Guadalupe river systems on the "Comannche" and Edwards plateaus southeastward to the Balcones Escarpment in Texas; northern tributaries of the Red River from the Wachita Mountains eastward to the Little River in Arkansas; the North Canadian River system in western Oklahoma; the Arkansas River system near Garden City, Kansas, to the Ozark escarpment west of Little Rock, Arkansas (except for streams draining the Springfield Plateau, but including the upper Neosho River system in the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas before it enters the Springfield Plateau), the Bayou des Arc and Little Red river systems of the lower White River, Arkansas; the Republican-Kansas river system of Kansas, eastern Colorado, and southern Nebraska; and the North Platte River of western Nebraska.

Subspecies squamosum (Ceas 1997): endemic to the Springfield Plateau; occurs in the Spring-Grand river system in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, northwestern Arkansas, and southwestern Missouri, and in the Illinois River system of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas.

Subspecies spectabile (Ceas 1997): east of the Mississippi river, occurs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and western Tennessee (Obion River, Obion County); and nearly all stream systems in Kentucky exclusive of the Cumberland, Dix (Kentucky drainage), Green, Salt, and Tennessee river systems; west of the Mississippi River, occurs in the Osage River system in Missouri and Kansas, the Gasconade, Meramec, and St. Francis river systems in Missouri, and other smaller streams in Iowa and Missouri that drain directly into the Mississippi or lower Missouri rivers; populations in the Missouri River system from the confluence of the Missouri and Osage rivers in Missouri to the Wakarusa River, Douglas County, Kansas, represent a large contact zone of E. s. pulchellum x E. s. spectabile intergrades.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, NE, OH, OK, TN, TX, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Boone (19015)*, Buchanan (19019), Davis (19051), Des Moines (19057), Henry (19087), Johnson (19103)*, Jones (19105)*, Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Story (19169)*, Van Buren (19177), Webster (19187)*
MI Hillsdale (26059)*, Monroe (26115), Washtenaw (26161)
NE Adams (31001)*, Brown (31017)*, Buffalo (31019), Chase (31029), Cherry (31031), Cheyenne (31033), Custer (31041), Dawes (31045), Dawson (31047), Dundy (31057), Franklin (31061), Frontier (31063), Gage (31067), Garden (31069), Hamilton (31081), Harlan (31083), Hayes (31085), Hitchcock (31087), Holt (31089), Jefferson (31095), Keith (31101), Kimball (31105), Lincoln (31111), Loup (31115), Morrill (31123), Nuckolls (31129), Pawnee (31133), Saunders (31155)*, Scotts Bluff (31157), Sioux (31165), Thayer (31169), Webster (31181), Wheeler (31183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009)
05 Hocking (05030204), Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Little Wabash (05120114), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204)
07 Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Skunk (07080107)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)*, North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001)*, Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Bayou Meto (08020402)
10 Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Horse (10180012)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Lower Lodgepole (10190016)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Salt (10200203)+*, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+, Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, Calamus (10210008)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Arikaree (10250001)+, North Fork Republican (10250002)+, South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004)+, Frenchman (10250005)+, Stinking Water (10250006)+, Red Willow (10250007), Medicine (10250008)+, Harlan County Reservoir (10250009)+, Upper Sappa (10250010), Lower Sappa (10250011), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+, Lower Big Blue (10270205)+, Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Lower Little Blue (10270207)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Buffalo (11010005), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001)*, Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian (11090204), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Lake Texoma (11130210), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Blue (11140102), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Lower Sulphur (11140302)
12 Upper Trinity (12030105), Chambers (12030109), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Leon (12070201), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), San Marcos (12100203), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Cibolo (12100304)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns mainly early April-early June in Michigan and Missouri, February-May in Arkansas, November-May in Texas (Hubbs 1985). Sexually mature in 1 year (Page 1983). Age range of breeding females is 1-3 years (Bart and Page 1992).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes slow to swift, shallow gravel riffles, and sometimes rocky runs and pools, of headwaters, creeks, and small rivers, with sand, gravel, rubble, or bedrock substrates; spring runs or quiet backwaters in some areas (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). This species is most abundant in alkaline waters; it seems to avoid rivers with strong current. Eggs are laid in gravel in riffles. Young drift downstream into pools, sometimes move into smallmouth bass nests where they feed (Page 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Adults eat immature flies, caddisflies, other insects, and fish eggs; young eat small insects and crustaceans (Page 1983).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Jan2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jan2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • ANDERSON, ALLISON A. AND WILLIAM H. NEILL. 1998. THERMAL PREFERENCE OF TAILWATER VERSUS NONTAILWATER POPULATIONS OF ETHEOSTOMA SPECTABILE. COPEIA 1998(1):226-230.

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Bandoli, James H. 1998. Status and Distribution of Darters in Southwestern Indiana, with Special Emphasis on the Spottail Darter, an Indiana Endangered Species. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 22 pp.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Beauvais, G. P. and W. Fertig. 2000. Status report for rare vertebrates and plants in Laramie County, Wyoming. Prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, and Laramie County Wyoming.

  • Beckman, W. G. 1952. Guide to the fishes of Colorado. Game and Fish Department, Denver.

  • CDOW. 1995. Eastern Colorado Plains Fish Database.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cancalosi, J. J. 1981. Fishes of the Republican River Basin in Colorado. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University.

  • Ceas, P. A. 1997. Systematic studies of the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile complex (Percidae; subgenus Oligocephalus). Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. viii + 157 pp.

  • Ceas, P. A., and L. M. Page. 1997. Systematic studies of the Etheostoma spectabile complex (Percidae; subgenus Oligocephalus), with descriptions of four species. Copeia 1997:496-522.

  • Colorado Division of Wildlife. 2006. Colorado's Wildlife Action Plan: http://wildlife.state.co.us/WildlifeSpecies/ColoradoWildlifeActionPlan/

  • Distler, D. A. 1968. Distribution and variation of Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz) (Percidae:Teleostei). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48(5):143-208.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Hubbs, C., F. B. Cross, and F. Stevens. 1988. Occurrence of natural hybrids between Etheostoma and Percina (Pisces: Percidae). Southwestern Naturalist 33:97-99.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • MARSH, E. 1980. THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PHOTOPERIOD ON THE TERMINATION OF SPAWNING IN THE ORANGETHROAT DARTER (ETHEOSTOMA SPECTABILE) IN CENTRAL TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 32(2): 129-142.

  • MARSH, EDIE. 1986. EFFECTS OF EGG SIZE ON OFFSPRING FITNESS AND MATERNAL FECUNDITY IN THE ORANGETHROAT DARTER, ETHEOSTOMA SPECTABILE (PISCES: PERCIDAE).

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M. 1983b. Identification of the percids, Boleosoma phlox Cope and Ioa vigil Hay. Copeia 1983: 1082-1083.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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