Etheostoma exile - (Girard, 1859)
Iowa Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma exile (Girard, 1859) (TSN 168393)
French Common Names: dard à ventre jaune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100441
Element Code: AFCQC02240
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma exile
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S3), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S3), Nebraska (S4), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S2), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S5), Utah (SNA), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S3S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to northern Alberta, and south to Ohio, Illinois, and Colorado (Page and Burr 2011). This species occurs farther west and north than any other darter.

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is regarded as generally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Distribution and abundance have declined in some areas (e.g., Illinois) due probably to habitat degradation caused by pollution, drainage of wetlands, and introductions of non-native species (Herkert 1992).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is unknown but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Populations have been extirpated in many localities in the southern part of the range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to northern Alberta, and south to Ohio, Illinois, and Colorado (Page and Burr 2011). This species occurs farther west and north than any other darter.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NMexotic, NY, OH, PA, SD, UTexotic, WI, WY
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Boone (19015)*, Linn (19113)*, Winnebagao (19189)*
IL Boone (17007)*, Cook (17031), Crawford (17033)*, DeKalb (17037)*, DuPage (17043), Kane (17089), Kendall (17093)*, Lake (17097), Mchenry (17111), Stephenson (17177)*, Vermilion (17183), Will (17197), Winnebago (17201)*
MT Blaine (30005), Carter (30011), Chouteau (30015), Daniels (30019), Dawson (30021), Fergus (30027), Garfield (30033), Hill (30041), Liberty (30051), McCone (30055), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Powder River (30075), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Valley (30105), Wibaux (30109)
NE Antelope (31003), Cherry (31031), Custer (31041), Garden (31069), Holt (31089), Keith (31101), Keya Paha (31103), Sheridan (31161), Sherman (31163), Sioux (31165)
NM San Juan (35045)*
NY Erie (36029), Jefferson (36045), Niagara (36063), Onondaga (36067)*, Oswego (36075), Seneca (36099), St. Lawrence (36089)
OH Ashland (39005), Clark (39023), Geauga (39055), Holmes (39075), Logan (39091), Miami (39109), Portage (39133), Richland (39139), Stark (39151), Summit (39153), Williams (39171)
PA Erie (42049)
WY Albany (56001), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015)*, Laramie (56021), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Platte (56031)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Ausable (02010004)*, Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006)*
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300)*, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)*, Oconto (04030104)*, Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203)*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Carp-Pine (04070002), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Lake Huron (04080300), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003)+, Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)+, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)*, Indian (04150303)+, Raquette (04150305)+, St. Regis (04150306)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), French (05010004)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Licking (05040006)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)*, South Skunk (07080105)*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Upper Iowa (07080207), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007)*, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+*
09 Lower Souris (09010003), Willow (09010004), Bois De Sioux (09020101), Otter Tail (09020103), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Maple (09020205), Roseau (09020314), Little Fork (09030005), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Big Dry (10040105)+, Lower Musselshell (10040205)+, Upper Milk (10050002)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Big Sandy (10050005)+, Sage (10050006)+, Lodge (10050007)+, Battle (10050008)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Cottonwood (10050010)+, Whitewater (10050011)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Frenchman (10050013)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Rock (10050015)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Poplar (10060003)+, West Fork Poplar (10060004)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Brush Lake closed basin (10060007), Lower Wind (10080005)+, Lower Powder (10090209)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, Lake Sakakawea (10110101), Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Boxelder (10110202)+, Beaver (10110204)+, Lower Heart (10130203), Cedar (10130205), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007), James Headwaters (10160001), Pipestem (10160002), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Upper North Platte (10180002), Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003), Medicine Bow (10180004), Little Medicine Bow (10180005), Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Crow (10190009), Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Lower South Platte (10190018)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002)*, Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)
14 Upper San Juan (14080101)+*, Animas (14080104)+*, Middle San Juan (14080105)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns April-July; female spawns with 1 to several males; eggs hatch in 18-26 days at 13-16 C; sexually mature in 1 year (Page 1983, Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates from deep water to shallow water for spawning; this migration sometimes includes an upstream movement (Page 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes clear sluggish vegetated headwaters, creeks, and small to medium rivers; weedy portions of glacial lakes, marshes, ponds; over substrates of sand, peat, and/or organic debris. This darter occurs in deeper lake waters and in stream pools when not breeding. Spawning occurs in shallow water of lake margins and quiet areas of streams; eggs are laid on submerged roots or debris, occasionally on gravel and sand (Page 1983, Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly various invertebrates; commonly ingested food items of adults are midge larvae, mayfly naiads, and amphipods, and of the young, copepods and cladocerans. Apparently feeds on swimming organisms and those on bottom.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Most active during day (Becker 1983).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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