Etheostoma camurum - (Cope, 1870)
Bluebreast Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Etheostoma camurum (Cope, 1870) (TSN 168379)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103976
Element Code: AFCQC02100
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
Image 230

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Etheostoma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Etheostoma camurum
Taxonomic Comments: Hybridizes with E. CHLOROBRANCHIUM in the Nolichucky River system, Tennessee, but gene pools appear to be effectively isolated and continued allospecific status of CAMURUM and CHLOROBRANCHIUM has been recommended (Eisenhour 1995).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Spotty distribution in the northern and central portions of the eastern U.S.; threatened by degraded water quality.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S4), New York (S1), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S4S5), Tennessee (S4), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Ohio River basin, from the Tennessee and Cumberland drainages, Tennessee, western Virginia, Kentucky, and Alabama, to the Vermillion River, eastern Illinois, and Tippecanoe River, Indiana, east to the Kanawha and Monongahela rivers, West Virginia, and upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania and western New York (Lee et al. 1980, Mettee et al. 1996, Page and Burr 2011). However, the species is absent from most rivers within this range (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Stauffer (1978; in Lee et al. 1980) ) mapped 80+ collection sites.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is "regionally abundant" in the Allegheny system of northwestern Pennsylvania and the Cumberland basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Overall, it is locally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Locally, threats include siltation, pollution, and impoundment (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations is unknown but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Should be monitored closely.

Protection Needs: Low pollution, turbidity habitats must be maintained.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Ohio River basin, from the Tennessee and Cumberland drainages, Tennessee, western Virginia, Kentucky, and Alabama, to the Vermillion River, eastern Illinois, and Tippecanoe River, Indiana, east to the Kanawha and Monongahela rivers, West Virginia, and upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania and western New York (Lee et al. 1980, Mettee et al. 1996, Page and Burr 2011). However, the species is absent from most rivers within this range (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, IL, IN, KY, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Limestone (01083)
IL Champaign (17019), Vermilion (17183)
IN Benton (18007), Carroll (18015), Cass (18017)*, Crawford (18025), Daviess (18027), Dubois (18037), Fountain (18045), Fulton (18049), Harrison (18061), Lawrence (18093), Martin (18101), Montgomery (18107)*, Parke (18121)*, Pike (18125), Pulaski (18131), Sullivan (18153)*, Tippecanoe (18157), Vigo (18167)*, Warren (18171), White (18181)
NY Allegany (36003), Cattaraugus (36009)
OH Adams (39001), Ashland (39005), Columbiana (39029), Coshocton (39031), Delaware (39041), Franklin (39049), Holmes (39075), Knox (39083), Madison (39097), Muskingum (39119), Pickaway (39129), Ross (39141), Washington (39167)
PA Allegheny (42003), Armstrong (42005), Beaver (42007), Clarion (42031), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Forest (42053), Mercer (42085), Venango (42121), Warren (42123)
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167), Scott (51169), Smyth (51173), Washington (51191)
WV Braxton (54007), Calhoun (54013), Clay (54015), Hancock (54029), Kanawha (54039), Lewis (54041), Logan (54045), Monongalia (54061), Preston (54077), Ritchie (54085), Webster (54101), Wirt (54105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Licking (05040006)*, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+, Elk (05050007)+, Coal (05050009)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Licking (05100101), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Eel (05120104)+, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Wildcat (05120107)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Sugar (05120110)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+*, Upper White (05120201), Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Caney (05130108), Stones (05130203), Red (05130206), Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102), Holston (06010104), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Hiwassee (06020002), Sequatchie (06020004), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A 60-mm fish (darter).
Reproduction Comments: Spawning peaks mid-May to early June in Ohio (complete by the end of June), late May to late July or early August in the Little River, Tennessee. Eggs hatch in 7-10 days at 19-23 C. Males are territorial (Page 1983, Burkhead and Jenkins 1991).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May move many kilometers upstream for spawning (Trautman 1981).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This darter typically occurs in warm, typically clear or slightly turbid, creeks and small to medium rivers with moderate gradient; adults generally are in moderately swift runs and riffles with substrate of coarse gravel, rubble, or boulders; this species is much less commonly found in areas of large slab rock and in shallow runs over gravel; it has low tolerance of silt (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Page and Burr 2011). Eggs are laid in sand or fine gravel beside large rocks at heads of riffles, and in riffles (Lee et al. 1980, Page 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly benthic insects, chiefly dipteran larvae.
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Losey, J., S. Roble, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Burkhead, N. M., and R. E. Jenkins. 1991. Fishes. Pages 321-409 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Carlson, Douglas M. 1998. Species Accounts for the rare fishes of New York. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Bureau of Fisheries, Endangered Fish Project. 95pp.

  • Carlson, Douglas M., Robert A. Daniels, and Jeremy J. Wright. 2016. Atlas of Inland Fishes of New York. New York State Museum Record 7. The New York State Education Department and Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York.

  • Carlson, Douglas. 1998. Summary of activities relating to management of ETs Fishes (as listed in 1983) from 1995 to present. 5pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Eaton, S.W., R.J. Nemecek and M.M. Kozubowski. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River above Kinzua Dam. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):189-198.

  • Eisenhour, D. J. 1995. Systematics of Etheostoma camurum and E. chlorobranchium (Osteichthyes: Percidae) in the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages with analysis of hybridization in the Nolichucky River system. Copeia 1995:368-379.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Evers, R.A. and L.M. Page. 1977. Some unusual natural areas in Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv Biol. Notes No. 100. 47pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. 

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2005. A strategy for conserving New York's fish and wildlife resources. Final submission draft.

  • O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:473-500.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1971. Illinois streams: a classification based on their fishes and an analysis of factors responsible for disappearance of native species. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes No. 76. 14pp.

  • Stauffer, JAY R., JR. 1987 EVALUATION OF NON-GAME FISHES FROM THE OHIO RIVER DRAINAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA, THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY. U87STA01PAUS.

  • Stauffer, Jay R., Jr., Robert W. Criswell, and Douglas P. Fischer. 2016. The Fishes of Pennsylvania. El Paso, TX: Cichlid Press.

  • Tiemann, Jeremy S. 2008. Distribution and life history characteristics of the state-endangered bluebreast darter Etheostoma camurum (Cope) in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 101 (3&4): 235-246.

  • Wood, R. M. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of the darter subgenus Nothonotus (Teleostei: Percidae). Copeia 1996:300-318.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.