Esox niger - Lesueur, 1818
Chain Pickerel
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Esox niger Lesueur, 1818 (TSN 162143)
French Common Names: brochet maillé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101187
Element Code: AFCHD01040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
Image 68

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Esociformes Esocidae Esox
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Esox niger
Taxonomic Comments: Certain populations formerly were regarded as distinct species, E. RETICULATUS and E. CRASSUS (Lee et al. 1980).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (21Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S1), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4S5), Kentucky (S3), Louisiana (S5), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNA), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), Oklahoma (SH), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S1), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S3)
Canada New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1997)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: This species is stable and not currently threatened in Quebec where the only native population occurs.

Status History: Designated Not at Risk in April 1997. More recently (2015) considered a low priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the North American Atlantic Slope from Nova Scotia (where introduced) to southern Florida; Gulf Coast west to Red River drainage, Oklahoma, and Sabine Lake drainage, Texas; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri; has expanded through man-made waterways around periphery of native range; introduced into drainages of lakes Ontario and Erie and in other drainages west to Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the North American Atlantic Slope from Nova Scotia (where introduced) to southern Florida; Gulf Coast west to Red River drainage, Oklahoma, and Sabine Lake drainage, Texas; Mississippi River basin north to Kentucky and Missouri; has expanded through man-made waterways around periphery of native range; introduced into drainages of lakes Ontario and Erie and in other drainages west to Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NEexotic, NH, NJ, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Canada NBexotic, NSexotic, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Ballard (21007), Calloway (21035), Carlisle (21039), Fulton (21075)*, Hickman (21105), Livingston (21139), Lyon (21143)*, Marshall (21157), McCracken (21145)*
OK Pushmataha (40127)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Kennebec (01030003), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Nashua (01070004), Concord (01070005), Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Blackstone (01090003), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Bronx (02030102), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Northern Long Island (02030201), Southern Long Island (02030202), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Upper Juniata (02050302), Raystown (02050303), Lower Juniata (02050304), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), South Branch Potomac (02070001), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110), Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Rivanna (02080204), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Deep (03030003), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Upper Broad (03050105), Lower Broad (03050106), Tyger (03050107), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Broad (03060104), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Ogeechee Coastal (03060204), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), Little Satilla (03070202), Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203), St. Marys (03070204), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Hillsborough (03100205), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Little (03110204), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Pensacola Bay (03140105), Perdido (03140106), Perdido Bay (03140107), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002)*, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211)*, Upper St. Francis (08020202)*, Lower St. Francis (08020203), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Lower Yazoo (08030208)*, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Lower Gasconade (10290203)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Cadron (11110205), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Upper Little (11140107)+*, Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Sabine Lake (12040201)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late winter and spring, sometimes in fall. Eggs hatch in 6-12 days. Sexually mature in first year in some in south, usually in third or fourth year in north.
Ecology Comments: Solitary except when breeding. Often sedentery in summer.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes vegetated lakes, swamps, and backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011); ranges from clean shallow heavily vegetated shoal water to deeper parts of lakes and larger mountain streams; this fish tolerates warm water, acidity to pH 3.8, and salinity to 22 ppt (Lee et al. 1980). It may enter brackish water in winter. Spawning occurs on flooded benches of streams, lakes, and ponds. Eggs sink and stick to bottom or vegetation.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Young initially feed on zooplankton for a week or more, then mostly on immature aquatic insects and some small fishes. At a size of 10-15 cm main diet is fishes. (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Phenology Comments: Active and feeds in winter under ice.
Length: 79 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Pikes and Pickerels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dam; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. However, individual muskellunge may migrate up to at least 40 km between spawning areas and nonspawning areas (Becker 1983), so occurrences may be large. It is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences.
Separation distances (in stream kilometers) are arbitrary but reflect the probability that these relatively large fishes move large distances and so warrant a large separation distance. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality. A gap of 10 km or more of any apparently unoccupied aquatic habitat separates occurrences.

Date: 21May2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Coffie, P. A. 1998. Status of the chain pickerel, Esox niger, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:133-140.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Crossman, E. J. and G. E. Lewis. 1973. An annotated bibliography of the chain pickerel, ESOX NIGER (Osteichthys: Salmoniformes). Misc. Puybl. R. Ont. Mus. Life Sci. pp. 1-87.

  • Crossman, E. J., and G. E. Lewis. 1973. An annotated bibliography of the chain pickerel, Esox niger (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). Royal Ontario Mus.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • McCabe, B. C. 1958. Esox niger (LeSueur). Tabular treatment of the life history and ecology of the chain pickerel. National Academy of Sciences, Handbook of Biological Data. 45 pp. mimeo.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Raney, E.C. 1942a. The summer food and habits of the chain pickerel, Esox niger, of a small New York pond. Journal of Wildlife Management 6(1):58-66.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wich, K., and J. W. Mullan. 1958. A compendium of the life history and ecology of the chain pickerel, Esox niger (LeSueur). Contrib. Nat. Acad. Sci. Comm. Handb. Biol. Data 22, 23 pp. + bibliogr.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

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