Esox americanus - Gmelin, 1789
Redfin Pickerel
Other English Common Names: Grass Pickerel
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Esox americanus Gmelin, 1789 (TSN 162140)
French Common Names: brochet d'Amérique
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103671
Element Code: AFCHD01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Esociformes Esocidae Esox
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Esox americanus
Taxonomic Comments: Subspecies vermiculatus formerly was regarded as a distinct species (Lee et al. 1980, Nelson 1984).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Alaska (SNR), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S4), Delaware (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S4), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S4), New Hampshire (S4), New Jersey (S5), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S3), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S3), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:SC,NAR
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Native range encompasses the Atlantic Slope from the St. Lawrence River drainage, Quebec, to Lake Okeechobee, Florida; Gulf drainages west to the Brazos River, Texas; Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins north to Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, and southern Ontario; absent in Appalachian uplands (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced in various localities in the western United States (e.g., Washington, California, Colorado) and eastern United States.

Subspecies americanus: Atlantic Slope drainages south to southern Georgia. Subspecies vermiculatus: remainder of range, with intergradation in most of Florida and in Gulf Slope drainages west to the Pascagoula River.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000 and presumably exceeds 1,000,000. This fish is common in many parts of its large range.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or decreasing at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) Native range encompasses the Atlantic Slope from the St. Lawrence River drainage, Quebec, to Lake Okeechobee, Florida; Gulf drainages west to the Brazos River, Texas; Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins north to Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, and southern Ontario; absent in Appalachian uplands (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). The species has been introduced in various localities in the western United States (e.g., Washington, California, Colorado) and eastern United States.

Subspecies americanus: Atlantic Slope drainages south to southern Georgia. Subspecies vermiculatus: remainder of range, with intergradation in most of Florida and in Gulf Slope drainages west to the Pascagoula River.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, COexotic, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Benton (19011)*, Cedar (19031)*, Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Des Moines (19057), Linn (19113)*, Louisa (19115), Monona (19133), Muscatine (19139), Polk (19153)*, Scott (19163), Warren (19181)*
NE Cherry (31031), Holt (31089), Sioux (31165)
NH Hillsborough (33011), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Kennebec (01030003), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Merrimack (01070002), Nashua (01070004)+, Concord (01070005), Merrimack (01070006)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Blackstone (01090003), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Bronx (02030102), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)*, Raritan (02030105), Southern Long Island (02030202), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Lower James (02080206), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Deep (03030003), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Upper Catawba (03050101), South Fork Catawba (03050102), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Upper Broad (03050105), Lower Broad (03050106), Tyger (03050107), Enoree (03050108), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101)*, Upper Savannah (03060103), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Ogeechee Coastal (03060204), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), Little Satilla (03070202), Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Hillsborough (03100205), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Little (03110204), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Pensacola Bay (03140105), Perdido (03140106), Perdido Bay (03140107), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)*, Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102)*, Lake Winnebago (04030203)*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003)*, St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Tittabawassee (04080201), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006)*, Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102)*, Niagara (04120104)*, Lake Erie (04120200)*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Upper Ohio (05030101)*, Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Connoquenessing (05030105), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)*, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004)*, Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003)*, Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Licking (05100101), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Castle Rock (07070003), Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, North Raccoon (07100006)+*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004)*, Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211)*, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Big Sunflower (08030207), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)*, Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008)*, Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Little (11090203), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201)*, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), North Galveston Bay (12040203), West Galveston Bay (12040204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns mainly in spring but also sometimes in fall. Eggs hatch in about 11-15 days. Sexually mature by age 2.
Ecology Comments: Not territorial (Lee et al. 1980).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes small, quiet, heavily vegetated waters: pools and backwaters of streams, canals, ponds, and bays of small lakes; this fish more often occurs in streams than in lakes. Eggs sink and stick to bottom and vegetation. Adults may move upstream to spawn in flooded stream margins or marshes where vegetation is abundant (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Young-of-year eat small crustaceans and immature insects, larger fishes mainly piscivorous but also eat crayfish and other invertebrates (Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 38 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Pikes and Pickerels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Dam; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. However, individual muskellunge may migrate up to at least 40 km between spawning areas and nonspawning areas (Becker 1983), so occurrences may be large. It is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences.
Separation distances (in stream kilometers) are arbitrary but reflect the probability that these relatively large fishes move large distances and so warrant a large separation distance. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality. A gap of 10 km or more of any apparently unoccupied aquatic habitat separates occurrences.

Date: 21May2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10May1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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