Escobaria sneedii - Britt. & Rose
Carpet Foxtail Cactus
Synonym(s): Coryphantha sneedii (Britt. & Rose) Berger
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Escobaria sneedii Britt. & Rose (TSN 195391)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154759
Element Code: PDCAC0X0E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Escobaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Escobaria sneedii
Taxonomic Comments: Comprised of two varieties, both of which are rare and are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The species (in this broad sense) is in Appendix I of CITES. Coryphantha sneedii is morphologically variable and there is some question to the validity of its infraspecific taxa, their boundaries, and other closely related taxa (FNA 2003b, Baker and Johnson 2000, and Baker 2007).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Jul2013
Global Status Last Changed: 10Jul2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known from western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Threatened by poaching (Although minimal since the species is now propagated.) Development threatens some populations. Most sites are in remote, rugged areas and have minimal threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States New Mexico (S2), Texas (S2)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE,LT
Comments on USESA: Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii is Listed Endangered; Escobaria sneedii var. leei is Listed Threatened.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by poaching and possibly development (See Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii and var. leei).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Over 30 years ago, Weniger (1970) noted the severe decline of this species stating, "the species is no doubt another of those well on the way to extinction." This statement should be reviewed.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western Texas and southeastern New Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NM, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Dona Ana (35013), Eddy (35015)
TX El Paso (48141)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+, Rio Grande-Fort Quitman (13040100)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A succulent so densely covered with white spines that the stems are hidden. Stems grow in dense clusters, up to 3 dm wide and about 1 dm tall. Flowers (April-September) are magenta.
Reproduction Comments: It is suspected that long distance dispersal does not take place frequently within this species, even though it is known to occur in other cacti species, given E. sneedii's isolated low-density populations. Also, its fruits are mature in the early summer and are gone by late summer suggesting that the fruits are not a primary food source for birds migrating in the fall, and hence long distance dispersal is a minor role in explaining its biogeography (Baker and Johnson 2000).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Subspecies leei is restricted to the Tansil Limestone Formation and grows only on north-facing limestone ledges, slopes and ridgetops, at 1220-1800 m elevation; precipitation averages 30 cm/year, in interior chaparral communities (USFWS, 1986). Subspecies sneedii is restricted to limestone ledges and the rocky slopes of limestone mountains in desert and desert grassland habitats; 1220-1800 m elevation; precipitation 19.7-40.0 cm/year; and grows in cracks on vertical cliffs or ledges (USFWS, 1986). For both subspecies, the limestones are generally hard, resistant to erosion, and support a sparse vegetation of low shrubs, some rosette-forming perennials, many cacti, and both annual and perennial herbs (USFWS, 1986).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Jul2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Poole, J. and K. Maybury, 9/96; rev. B. MacBryde, 9/2000, rev. Treher (2013)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, M. A., and R. A. Johnson. 2000. Morphometric analysis of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae). Systematic Botany 25(4):577-587.

  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Champie, C. 1960. Escobaria sneedii further described. Cactus and Succulent J. 32: 138-140.

  • Champie, C. 1973. Strangers in the Franklins. Privately published, El Paso, Texas.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980-1981. A flora of New Mexico. 2 vols. J. Cramer, in der A.R. Gantner Verlag, K.G., Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 2591 pp.

  • New Mexico Native Plant Protection Advisory Committee. 1984. A handbook of rare and endemic plants of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 291 pp.

  • Poole, J.M., and D.H. Riskind. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Texas Parks Wildlife Dept., Austin, TX.

  • Sivinski, R. 1993. Flora Neomexicana: Cactus confusion. Native Plant Society of New Mexico Newsletter 18(4): 1-2.

  • Sivinski, R., and K. Lightfoot, eds. 1995. Inventory of rare and endangered plants of New Mexico. 3rd edition. Miscellaneous Publication No. 4, Forestry Division, New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Dept., Santa Fe.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1986. Sneed and Lee pincushion cacti (Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii and Coryphantha sneedii var. leei) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 53 pp.

  • Weniger, D. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas. 249 pp. + 64 pls.

  • Weniger, D. 1984. Cacti of Texas and neighboring states: a field guide. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 356 pp.

  • Worthington, R.D. 1986. Observations on the flowering of cacti from the vicinity of El Paso, Texas. Cactus and Succulent J. 58: 213-217.

  • Worthington, R.D. 1989. An annotated checklist of the native and naturalized flora of El Paso County, Texas. El Paso Southwest Botanical Miscellany No. 1. 56 pp.

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