Erysimum menziesii - (Hook.) Wettst.
Menzies' Wallflower
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Erysimum menziesii (Hook.) Wettst. (TSN 22943)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.150983
Element Code: PDBRA160R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Erysimum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B10FNA07HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Erysimum menziesii
Taxonomic Comments: As treated here, following FNA (2010, vol. 7), Erysimum menziesii includes subspecies eurekense, menziesii, and yadonii, but excludes subspecies concinnum. This is the treatment followed by USFWS when the species was listed endangered, Kartesz's 1994 checklist, and the second edition of The Jepson Manual (Baldwin et al. 2012),. This treatment is based on Price's 1987 doctoral dissertation. According to FNA, Price's 1993 treatment (followed by Kartesz 1999) accepted four subspecies (concinnum, eurekense, menziesii, and yadonii), three of which were never validly published.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Jul2013
Global Status Last Changed: 10Jul2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: As treated here, Erysimum menziesii comprises three rare subspecies: ssp. menziesii, ssp. eurekense, and ssp. yadonii, which are endemic to three counties in northern California and are known from 16 populations. The populations of E. menziesii, as treated by USFWS, are faced with many threats: invasive exotic plants, off-road vehicle activity, industrial and residential development, trampling by recreational users, browsing by deer, coastal erosion, sand mining activities, and the deposition of dredge material from adjacent water bodies.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (22Jun1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to California in Monterey, Mendocino, and Humboldt Counties (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997). 14,506 sq km (R. Bittman, pers. comm. 2013).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Together, the three rare subspecies of Erysimum menziesii, ssp. eurekense, ssp. menziesii, and ssp. yadonii are known from 19 occurrences, 15 of which are presumed to be extant (California Natural Diversity Database, 2012). Subspecies concinnum is not included here.

Population Size Comments: The three subspecies of Erysimum menziesii: ssp. eurekense, ssp. menziesii, and ssp. yadonii, are known from at least 33,300 individuals (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by invasive exotic plants, particularly European beach grass, iceplant, and yellow bush lupine, off-road vehicle activity, industrial and residential development, trampling by recreational users. The displacement of subspecies menziesii by the invasive non-native iceplant is a threat to Monterey County populations and the populations north of Fort Bragg. Other threats are browsing by deer, coastal erosion, sand mining activities, and the deposition of dredge material from adjacent water bodies (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Off-road vehicle impacts have been a major cause of habitat degradation for Erysimum menziesii ssp. eurekense in the past but management efforts have resulted in reduced threats from that activity. More than 5,000 seedlings of E. menziesii ssp. yadonii were planted at Marina State Beach with an 80% success rate (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to California in Monterey, Mendocino, and Humboldt Counties (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997). 14,506 sq km (R. Bittman, pers. comm. 2013).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Humboldt (06023), Mendocino (06045), Monterey (06053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+, Salinas (18060005)+*, Carmel (18060012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A member of the mustard family and a biennial or a short-lived perennial depending on the particular population. Each plant usually has several flowering stems from 0.5 to 1.5 decimeters tall. The flower petals are usually yellow (light or rich yellow), 15-20 mm long. The flowers are grouped into an inflorescence. Fleshy leaves form a basal rosette and are somewhat spoon-shaped, narrowing abruptly to the leaf stalk. Leaf margins are entire, dentate, or lobed. Fruit is a silique, four-sided when green and flattened when dry (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: The habitats of the Monterey county populations differ from those of the northern California populations. The plants are generally distributed in clusters or patches. In northern California, the species occurs in northern foredune or dune mat community, on the flanks or crests of dunes, open sand areas, sparsely vegetated dunes, and the borders of lupine scrub. The plants can tolerate some sand movement. The associated vegetation community is composed of low-growing suffrutescent perennial and herbaceous native species. Common associates are beach sagewort (Artemisia pycnocephala), dune goldenrod (Solidago spathulata), coast buckwheat (Eriogonum latifolium), sand verbena, beach pea (Lathyrus littoralis) and seashore bluegrass (Poa douglasii). In Monterey County, the species occurs on coastal strand, close to the high tide line, but largely protected from wave action. The species has high exposure to strong wind, salt spray, and occasional wave action from storms and high tides. The substrate is loose sand lacking in organic matter and minerals. Associated species along the Monterey Peninsula include beach primrose (Camissonia cheiranthifolia), beach-bur, sea rocket (Cakile maritima), beach knotweed (Polugonum paronychia), sand verbena and iceplant. Monterey County habitats are relatively free of the invasive Ammophila arenaria (Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Aug1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gries, D. (1999); rev. M. Martinez (1999) and L. Morse (2000), rev. G. Davis (2012 and 2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, eds. 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California. 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1568 pp.

  • California Department of Fish and Game. 1997. RareFind 2 personal computer program. Information dated March 1999. Sacramento, California.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1999. Comments regarding taxa 1-187 [of list supplied by TNC]. Unpublished, Biota of North America Program, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C., Nov. 25, 1999.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • NatureServe. Unpublished. Concept reference for taxa for which no reference which describes the circumscription has been recorded; to be used as a placeholder until such a citation is identified.

  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Seven Coastal Plants and the Myrtle's Silverspot Butterfly Draft Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon. 117 pp.

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