Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium - Gandog.
Scrub Buckwheat
Other English Common Names: Longleaf Buckwheat
Other Common Names: longleaf buckwheat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium Gandog. (TSN 195519)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153727
Element Code: PDPGN083R1
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buckwheat Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygonales Polygonaceae Eriogonum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4T3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Feb2000
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jan1985
Rounded Global Status: T3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: A Florida endemic with a restricted habitat that is threatened by development. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database currently contains 83 occurrence records, located in Marion, Lake, Sumter, Osceola, Polk, and Highlands counties, Florida. Many of the occurrences are located with the Ocala National Forest, Florida.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (27Apr1993)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Central Florida (Marion, Lake, Polk, Highlands, southwest Orange, and northwest Osceola counties). Historically, Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium may have occurred in Hillsborough county near Tampa, if a specimen identified by Gandoger as "E. longifolium var. floridana" should be assigned to this variety (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993b).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat being converted to orange groves and housing developments.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Central Florida (Marion, Lake, Polk, Highlands, southwest Orange, and northwest Osceola counties). Historically, Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium may have occurred in Hillsborough county near Tampa, if a specimen identified by Gandoger as "E. longifolium var. floridana" should be assigned to this variety (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993b).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
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U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Highlands (12055), Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Orange (12095), Osceola (12097), Polk (12105), Sumter (12119)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103)+, Peace (03100101)+*, Withlacoochee (03100208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, growing to 1 m tall. Stems are covered with soft silver hairs. Basal leaves have silver hairs on the under surface and are linear or narrowly oblong in shape. Petals are lacking. Sepals, 6, are whitish-green in color and linear in shape.
Technical Description: The technical description for the full species E. longifolium follows: Tall erect leafy perennial herb 1-2 m high, the stems sparsely pubescent or more commonly glabrous. Basal leaves oblong to lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1-2 dm long, 1-3 cm wide, thinly pubescent below, nearly or quite glabrous above, the petioles 4-10 cm long and winged at the base. Cauline leaves similar to the basal ones only more reduced and sessile. Inflorescences paniculate cymes, about one half the length of the plants with numerous branches, glabrous or nearly so; peduncles (when present) to 3 cm long, erect; involucres turbinate to turbinate-campanulate, 4-6 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide; pedicels 5-10 mm long; perianth stipitate, densely white- to silvery-pubescent externally, yellow and glabrous internally, 4-5 mm long in anthesis; calyx segments lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, the segments becoming narrower and the perianth (including the stipe) 5-8 mm long in fruit. Achenes 4-4.5 mm long, densely white-tomentose (Correll and Johnston, 1970).
Diagnostic Characteristics:

Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium is distinguished by having a flowering stem with alternate leaves, the blades relatively narrow; inflorescence with minute bracts; sepals narrow, involute; filaments glabrous (Small, 1933).

Only one other related species, Eriogonum tomentosum, is found in Florida. Although both species can sometimes be found in the same sites, Eriogonum tomentosum is quite distinct from Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium. Eriogonum tomentosum has leafy bracts in its inflorescences, and its cauline leaves are opposite (Ward 1979, Wunderlin 1982, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993b).

Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium is an herbaceous perennial that presumably is long-lived and slowly growing. It flowers and reproduces primarily after fires or other disturbances (e.g. logging, mowing) that increase light availability. Although it readily resprouts after fires or other disturbances such as mowing, it does not reproduce vegetatively.

Flowering can occur from January to November, but is usually synchronized with fire or other disturbance; most flowering occurs within the first year after a fire. Although a plant is usually in flower for two to three months, the individual flowers are short-lived and open asyncronously. Typically, a maximum of one to two flowers per involucre are open at any one time. The flowers, although inconspicuous, must be insect-pollinated for seed set to occur. Several types of hunting wasps (families Vespidae, Eumenidae, Sphecoidea, Pompilidae) and a few bee species (Halictidae) visit the flowers. These insects, all with an excellent locational sense, may be "traplining" the plants daily for their nectar. Although the flowers provide a dependable source of nectar, it is thought that these insects are the only potential pollinators able to repeatedly located the scattered, inconspicuous flowers (Deyrup pers. communication).

Seeds have no obvious dispersal mechanism, and usually drop beneath the parent plant; some may be carried a short distance in runoff during a rain. Seeds have no dormancy, but germinate only in microsites with little or no litter and sufficient moisture (Carrington unpubl. data). Virtually all seedling establishment, therefore, must occur within the first year after a fire; litter buildup is prohibitive afterwards. Seedling establishment tends to be rare, however, probably because moisture conditions are usually not optimal due to high soil surface temperatures and evaporation rates following growing season fires. Most seedling establishment probably occurs in very wet periods after fires.

In the low-light conditions of long-undisturbed communities, Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium individuals are present as inconspicuous basal rosettes; flowering individuals are rare, and occur only in openings or on edges such as road shoulders or fire breaks (pers. obs.). Plants may be capable of surviving without leaves in undisturbed communities by subsisting on stored carbohydrates in their large roots; this possibility is suggested by the "sudden appearance" of previously undetected adult plants in populations monitored for several years (Menges pers. communication). Longevity of individuals is unknown, but since establishment from seed is extremely rare in long-unburned communities, populations may decline or vanish in sites unburned for several decades. Drought tolerance assumed from habitat.

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Dry pinelands, sandhills, and scrub (longleaf pine-turkey oak, scrub oaks). More commonly found in transition habitats between scrub and high pine and in turkey oak barrens than in either dense scrub or open high pine. (Based on Christman 1988, Myers 1990.)
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This plant is a federally-threatened variety found only in the state of Florida. The major threat to populations existing in often small, disjunct pine-scrub oak patches is destruction of habitat through development or conversion to orange groves. Recovery potential is good, provided that additional habitat protection occurs. Controlled burning is probably essential to successful management. Little is known, however, about the effects of different habitat management techniques on populations; research in this area should be a priority.
Restoration Potential: Restoration potential seems to be good. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service considers delisting to be possible "when habitat protection is complete and management measures are taken (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995)." They feel that protection of the plant outside of Polk and Highlands counties and Ocala National Forest (perhaps near Clermont in Lake county) and research on management techniques would enhance recovery. Land acquisition by the state is ongoing (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995), and acquisition for the proposed Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge has begun (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993a).
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: A preserve should encompass both actual and potential habitat for the plants, and should be large enough to feasibly use controlled burning as a management tool. Juxtaposition to other landowners and land uses should be such that controlled burning will not threaten property or safety.
Management Requirements: Controlled burning is probably essential for management. Optimal fire frequency is not known, but a variable frequency is probably best. Consistent fire suppression over several decades would probably result in population declines through attrition and loss of recruitment, while consistent very frequent burning would probably kill seedlings and juveniles. Soil disturbance should be avoided.

Several experimental burns at Archbold Biological Station have resulted in major flowering events and some seedling establishment. After one of these burns, 89% of 55 marked adults resprouted; 86% of the resprouted plants flowered within five months of the burn. From 0 to 8 seedlings/m

2 had established in the immediate vicinity of flowering adults by 19 months after the fire (Carrington unpubl. data).

Monitoring Requirements: Long-term monitoring of additional representative populations is needed to quantify population trends and responses to management procedures (e.g., burning, timber management). Population counts can be obtained by setting up several (number depends on the area to be monitored) 2m-wide transects within the area occupied by the population. Plants within the transects should be counted at least every five years, and each year for the first several years after a fire or other disturbance.

For more detailed demographic data, at least four to six 10m x 10m permanent plots should be established within the area occupied by the population. To facilitate monitoring, the 10m x 10m plots should be subdivided into 1m x 1m plots. All plants within the plots should be marked and revisited at least every three to five years, and each year for the first several years after a fire or other disturbance. Data to be collected for each plant include number of basal rosettes, diameter of each basal rosette, number of basal leaves, and number of flowering stems. All new seedlings or previously undetected adults also should be recorded at each visit (Menges pers. communication).


Management Programs: Populations are not being specifically managed anywhere, but Lake Arbuckle State Park, the state-owned Catfish Creek, TNC Tiger Creek and Lake Apthorpe preserves, and Archbold Biological Station have ongoing controlled burning programs.
Monitoring Programs: Eric Menges has been yearly monitoring five populations at Archbold Biological Station. Monitoring began in 1989 for one recently-burned/long-unburned pair of populations, in 1990 for another pair, and in 1991 for a long-unburned population (Menges pers. communication).
Management Research Programs: At Archbold Biological Station, a study is underway to determine the effects of different frequencies of controlled burning on population demography (see MONIT.PROG section). One population was burned once, while another population was burned in two consecutive years (Menges pers. communication).
Management Research Needs: Several research questions should be addressed so that populations can be more effectively managed:

- What population trends result from different land management procedures (e.g., burning, clearcutting, clearcutting followed by roller chopping, no disturbance)?

- What are habitat and disturbance characteristics (e.g., light availability, litter depth, fire frequency, woody plant cover, amount of bare ground) of vigorous populations?

- What are the effects of plant size and fire intensity on resprouting ability?

- How long does it take a plant to reach sexual maturity?

Additional topics: Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphifolium is included in an ongoing research project testing whether genetic variation in narrowly-endemic plant species is affected by population size and distribution. Genetic variation will be compared within and among populations over the entire geographic range by using isozyme analyses. Additional data are being collected on the breeding system, pollination, and seed dispersal. In a second phase of the study, the impact of proposed guidelines for conservation of plant genetic diversity, and the genetic conservation success of proposed Lake Wales Ridge preserve designs will be evaluated with respect to the study species. Not only will the study provide information needed for conservation of genetic diversity in Eriogonum, but it may identify populations that are important reservoirs of genetic diversity. The principle investigator for this study is Eric Menges (Menges pers. communication).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Nov1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Russell, C.; rev. M.E. Stover, TNC-HO; Carrington, M.E.(1995)
Management Information Edition Date: 03Nov1995
Management Information Edition Author: MARY CARRINGTON, FOR BOB JORDAN, SERO
Management Information Acknowledgments:

Deyrup, Mark, personal communication. Archbold Biological Station, P.O. Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33852 (813) 465-2571.

Menges, Eric S., personal communication. Archbold Biological Station, P.O. Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33852 (813) 465-2571 [74604.2015@compuserve.com].

Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Nov1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): REV. C. ANNNABLE; REV. M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO (2/95); M.E. CARRINGTON (1995)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Christman, S.P. 1988. Endemism and Florida's interior sand pine scrub. Final project report on project #GFC-84-101 to Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Florida. 247 pp. + maps, tables & appendices.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Hall, D.W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. 431 pp.

  • Hall, David W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the coastal plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, FL. pp. 431.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Myers, R.L. 1990. Scrub and high pine. In R.L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. Univ. Central Florida Press, Orlando.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Taylor, W.K. 1992. The guide to Florida wildflowers. Taylor Publishing, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • Taylor, Walter Kingsley. 1992. The Guide to Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. 320 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Endangered or threatened status for seven central Florida plants. Federal Register 58(79): 25746-25755.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Final environmental assessment and land protection plan, proposed establishment of Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, Highlands and Polk counties, Florida. Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Final rule; endangered or threatened status for seven central Florida plants. Federal Register 58:25746-25755.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Draft recovery plan for nineteen central Florida scrub and high pineland plants (revised). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA.

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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