Eriogonum brandegeei - Rydb.
Brandegee's Buckwheat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Eriogonum brandegeei Rydb. (TSN 21082)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161694
Element Code: PDPGN080U0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buckwheat Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygonales Polygonaceae Eriogonum
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eriogonum brandegeei
Taxonomic Comments: Often spelled 'brandegei' but the spelling 'brandegeei' used by Kartesz in 1998 to conform to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Dec2009
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This species is known only from southcentral Colorado in a habitat that is threatened by residential and recreational developments and by road construction.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1S2)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: USFWS spells this taxon 'Eriogonum brandegei'. Was previously a candidate, but was removed from candidacy on February 28, 1996 in a notice of review.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to Colorado; Fremont and Chaffee counties. Six of the nine verified occurrences are located within a 5 by 15 mile area along the Arkansas River in Chaffee County. The other three are about 50 miles away in a 2 by 3 mile area at Garden Park, north of Canon City in Fremont County (Anderson 2006). Questionable reports of E. brandegeei in other areas are considered to be mislabeled (Anderson 2006). Estimated range is 6,828 square kilometers (2,636 square miles), calculated in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences (calculated by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in 2008).

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The total occupied habitat is about 846 acres (3.4 square kilometers). Occurrences without specific information on occupied habitat were considered to occupy 0.5 acre. Anderson (2006) reports that the area of known occupied habitat is 1.27 square miles (3.3 square kilometers).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 9 principal occurrences documented in the Colorado Natural Heritage Program database. Three of the 9 occurrences have not been observed in over 20 years. Three of the 9 occurrences are imprecisely mapped, and at least two of these, the occurrences in Park and El Paso County, are probably erroneous. The USFS Conservation Assessment documents 12 with 3 questionable occurrences (Anderson 2006). The discrepancy in total number of occurrences is because some of the occurrences reported by Anderson have been lumped with other occurrences in the CNHP database and are now considered sub-occurrences. No new occurrences were found during a two week intensive survey in 1995 (Spackman 1995).

Population Size Comments: Estimated sum of individuals observed from 6 of the 9 documented occurrences is 21,100; the remaining occurrences do not report the number of individuals. Population estimates for the species range between 35,000 and several million plants (Anderson 2006).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are 5 occurrences with an A or B rank.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat at this time is considered to be off road vehicle use (Anderson 2006, Rondeau et al. 2011). The species is also threatened by other recreational uses, residential and commercial development (especially near Salida), timber thinning and extraction, mining, right-of-way management, exotic species invasion, grazing, effects of small population size, rust, fire, global climate change, weed spraying and pollution (Anderson 2006). Some threats are more urgent at some sites than at others; however, all sites are threatened by recreational impacts, particularly off road vehicle use. Residential development has encroached on one of the best occurrences. All of the known occurrences are now threatened by human activities (Anderson 2006). According to the CSU Extension Service, a rust species found on some plants in the Cleora site is not a threat as it rarely causes damage to plants (Grant and DePrenger-Levin 2005, Colorado Natural Heritage Program 2005).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: BLM and the Denver Botanic Gardens (DBG) have been monitoring trends in population size for several years at the Garden Park site (Dawson 2009). Preliminary results of monitoring efforts over the course of the study have shown non-significant fluctuations in average plant number per transect (DGB 2008). Bill Jennings noted no change in population size from 1989 to 1993 at Hecla Junction (near Salida) (Anderson 2006).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: There are no specific data regarding fragility of this species.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to Colorado; Fremont and Chaffee counties. Six of the nine verified occurrences are located within a 5 by 15 mile area along the Arkansas River in Chaffee County. The other three are about 50 miles away in a 2 by 3 mile area at Garden Park, north of Canon City in Fremont County (Anderson 2006). Questionable reports of E. brandegeei in other areas are considered to be mislabeled (Anderson 2006). Estimated range is 6,828 square kilometers (2,636 square miles), calculated in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences (calculated by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in 2008).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Chaffee (08015), Fremont (08043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+, Upper Arkansas (11020002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb that forms tufts of narrow, erect leaves from which arises a leafless, densely woolly flowering stem, 1-2 dm tall. The flowering stem bears a terminal cluster of tiny white to rose-colored flowers.
General Description: Eriogonum brandegeei is a mat-forming perennial herb. It is typically 10 to 25 cm tall, and mats have been observed from 1 inch in diameter to more than 2 ft. in diameter. Eriogonum brandegeei has an deep, woody taproot that, along with its spreading habit, leaves it well adapted to surviving on steep, unstable slopes. Plants have been observed on "pedestals," with much of their woody root exposed. Its leaves are erect and densely hairy on both sides. The dense hair gives the plant a blue-green appearance. Eriogonum brandegeei produces leafless, unbranched flowering stalks that bear terminal clusters of white to pink or rose-colored flowers that are 3 to 3.5 mm long. The stamens are slightly exserted from the flower (Anderson 2006).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Eriogonum brandegeei is distinguished from other local Eriogonum species by its leaves, which are densely tomentose on both sides, and by its unbranched flowering stalk (Spackman et al. 1997).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Occurrences of Eriogonum brandegeei are limited mostly to outcrops of the Dry Union Formation (in Chaffee County) and lower members of the Morrison Formation (in Fremont County), or to Quaternary strata that are derived from these formations (O'Kane 1988, Spackman et al. 1997, Anderson 2006). The unifying feature of all the known occurrences is the presence of a significant fraction of bentonite clay in the soil (Anderson 2006). Bentonite is derived from the decomposition of volcanic ash, and is a type of shrink-swell, or 2:1 clay. Eriogonum brandegeei is most commonly found on active slopes that can be as steep as 90 percent. It has been also been documented on flat sites, particularly where erosion has deposited clay soil in small basins (Anderson 2006). In general, this species is found on barren outcrops of white to grayish soils within open sagebrush and pinyon-juniper communities. Frequently associated species include: Atriplex canescens, Opuntia imbricata, Bouteloua gracilis, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Aristida fendleriana, Sphaeralcea coccinea, Cleome serrulata, Melilotus alba, Salsola iberica, Kochia iranica, Melitotus officialis, and Bouteloua curtipendula (Johnston et al. 1981).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.61 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3.22 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 03Oct2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: Size: 5000 or more individuals on 40 or more acres (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. Quarrying, off-road vehicle use, and other human activities should be minimal in the area. Very low incidence of leaf rust or other disease should be evident in the population. Landscape Context: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species. The presence of a natural fire regime is presumed to be beneficial to this species, and a natural disturbance regime, possibly erosion, may also benefit the species.
Good Viability: Size: 1000 or more individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover. Landscape Context: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.
Fair Viability: Size: 20 to 1000 individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance). Landscape Context: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.
Poor Viability: Size: Less than 20 individuals (based on available EOR data). Condition: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance and the habitat is probably not recoverable. Landscape context: The surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact. The occurrence has a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and its intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Justification: A Rank: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient.

C Rank: EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03Oct2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Notes: COHP
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Dec2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Losey, J., and Y. Ogle., rev. Spackman/Maybury (1996), rev. Spackman, S. and D. Anderson (2000), rev. G. Doyle (2006), rev. Neuhaus, K., J. Handwerk, and S. Panjabi (2007), rev. Handwerk, J. (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Feb2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Susan Spackman Panjabi

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Ackerfield, J. 2012. The Flora of Colorado. Colorado State University Herbarium. 433 pp.


  • Anderson, D.G. 2006. Eriogonum brandegeei Rydberg (Brandegee's buckwheat): A Technical Conservation Assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/eriogonumbrandegeei.pdf

  • Anderson, D.G. 2006. Eriogonum brandegeei Rydberg (Brandegee's buckwheat): A Technical Conservation Assessment. [Online]. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/eriogonumbrandegeei.pdf

  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Colorado Native Plant Society, Estes Park, Colorado. 73 pp.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2005. The Second Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G1 Plants of Colorado. Symposium Minutes. Available on-line http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/teams/botany.asp#symposia.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2005. The Second Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G1 Plants of Colorado. Symposium Minutes. Available on-line http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/teams/botany.asp#symposia.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biodiversity Tracking and Conservation System (BIOTICS). Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Dawson, C. 2009. Personal communication with Colorado Natural Heritage Program staff regarding BLM rare plant monitoring in Colorado.

  • Denver Botanic Gardens. 2008. Eriogonum brandegeei Demographic Monitoring Study 2004-2008. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office.

  • Ecology Consultants, Inc. 1978. An illustrated guide to the proposed threatened and endangered plant species in Colorado. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lakewood, CO. 114 pp.

  • Grant, T. and M. DePrenger-Levin. 2005. Eriogonum brandegeei Demographic Monitoring Study 2004-2005. Prepared for U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office by the Denver Botanic Gardens' Research, Herbaria and Records Department.

  • Grant, T. and M. DePrenger-Levin. 2005. Eriogonum brandegeei Demographic Monitoring Study 2004-2005. Prepared for U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office by the Denver Botanic Gardens' Research, Herbaria and Records Department.

  • Johnston, B. C., J. S. Peterson and W. Harmon. 1981. Status Report for Eriogonum brandegei. Unpublished report prepared for Colorado Natural Areas Program, Denver, CO.

  • Johnston, B. C., J. S. Peterson and W. Harmon. 1981. Status Report for Eriogonum brandegei. Unpublished report prepared for Colorado Natural Areas Program, Denver, CO.

  • Kartesz, J., and the Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 1998. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. http://plants.usda.gov.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, John and the Biota of North America Program. 1998. "A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands". http://plants.usda.gov.

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • O'Kane, S.L. 1988. Colorado's rare flora. Great Basin Naturalist 48(4): 434-484.

  • Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists. 2009. RARE Imperiled Plants of Colorado, a traveling art exhibition. Exhibition catalogue developed by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Steamboat Art Museum.

  • Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague. 2011. The state of Colorado's biodiversity 2011. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Arkansas Valley Barrens Site Conservation Plan.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Eastern Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 555 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.