Erimystax x-punctatus - (Hubbs and Crowe, 1956)
Gravel Chub
Synonym(s): Erimystax x-punctata (Hubbs and Crowe, 1956) ;Hybopsis x-punctata
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Erimystax x-punctatus (Hubbs and Crowe, 1956) (TSN 163824)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102911
Element Code: AFCJB50050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Erimystax
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Erimystax x-punctatus
Taxonomic Comments: Removed from genus Hybopsis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Erimystax by Mayden (1989) and Coburn and Cavender (1992); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991).

Two subspecies: x-punctatus and trautmani.

See Simons (2004) for information on the phylogenetic relationships of species in the genus Erimystax, based on mtDNA data.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 17Aug2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Spotty distribution on fine gravel or rocky substrates in creeks and rivers from Kansas to New York, southern Minnesota to Arkansas; locally abundant in some areas in the western part of the range; currently stable overall; siltation and impoundment are the greatest threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NX (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S1S2), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S2S3), Kentucky (SX), Minnesota (S2), Missouri (SNR), New York (SH), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S2S3), Pennsylvania (S1), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S1)
Canada Ontario (SX)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: XT (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Extirpated (25Apr2008)
Comments on COSEWIC: The historic Canadian range of this small minnow was originally a single watershed in southern Ontario. The last record for this species was in 1958 despite extensive, repeated sampling at known sites and other areas of suitable habitat over the last 50 years. Ecosystem restoration of this watershed is underway; however, natural recolonization by the species is not possible because there are no adjacent populations in the Great Lakes watershed.

Last recorded in Thames River drainage, Ontario in 1958. Designated Endangered in April 1985. Status re-examined and designated Extirpated in April 1987. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000 and April 2008.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Spotty overall distribution includes the Thames River system, southern Ontario (at least formerly); Ohio River basin from New York and Pennsylvania to the Wabash river, Illinois (absent south of the Ohio river except one record in the upper Green River, Kentucky); Mississippi river basin from southern Wisconsin and southern Minnesota to northern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma; Ouachita River system, Arkansas (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983, Cooper 1983, Robison and Buchanan 1985, Smith 1985, Cross and Collins 1995, Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies x-punctatus: west of the Wabash River drainage. Subspecies trautmani: Wabash River drainage and eastward.

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Pflieger (1997) mapped several dozen post-1945 collection sites in Missouri, representing at least a couple dozen distinct occurrences; approximately 20 additional locations were based on pre-1945 collections, and Pflieger was uncertain of the current status of the formerly substantial population in the Salt River system in northeastern Missouri, where Cannon Dam may have had a negative impact. Robison and Buchanan (1988) mapped 50+ collection sites, almost all 1960-1987, in Arkansas; these represent at least 1-2 dozen distinct occurrences. Smith (1985) reported one occurrence in New York, based on a 1973 collection. No more than a few occurrences in Pennsylvania (Lee et al. 1980). No extant occurrences in Ontario or Kentucky.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000. This fish is more abundant in the western part of the range than in the east (Lee et al. 1980).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Stream siltation is a major threat. Impoundments eliminate and degrade habitat.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Distribution and abundance appear to be relatively stable in the central and western portions of the range. Warren et al. (2000) rated it as currently stable in the southern U.S. Jelks et al. (2008) did not listed this species as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. Page and Burr (2011) described it as locally common but declining over much of range. The historically limited Ontario and Kentucky populations are extirpated.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Spotty overall distribution includes the Thames River system, southern Ontario (at least formerly); Ohio River basin from New York and Pennsylvania to the Wabash river, Illinois (absent south of the Ohio river except one record in the upper Green River, Kentucky); Mississippi river basin from southern Wisconsin and southern Minnesota to northern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma; Ouachita River system, Arkansas (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983, Cooper 1983, Robison and Buchanan 1985, Smith 1985, Cross and Collins 1995, Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies x-punctatus: west of the Wabash River drainage. Subspecies trautmani: Wabash River drainage and eastward.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KYextirpated, MN, MO, NY, OH, OK, PA, WI, WV
Canada ONextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Black Hawk (19013)*, Boone (19015)*, Clayton (19043)*
IL Clark (17023)*, DeKalb (17037), Gallatin (17059), Lawrence (17101)*, Lee (17103), Monroe (17133)*, Ogle (17141), Rock Island (17161)*, Stephenson (17177), Vermilion (17183)*, Wabash (17185)*, White (17193), Whiteside (17195), Will (17197), Winnebago (17201)
KS Allen (20001), Chase (20017)*, Cherokee (20021), Coffey (20031)*, Labette (20099), Neosho (20133), Woodson (20207)
MN Fillmore (27045), Houston (27055), Olmsted (27109)
NY Cattaraugus (36009)*
PA Allegheny (42003), Fayette (42051)*, Somerset (42111)*, Venango (42121), Warren (42123), Westmoreland (42129)*
WI Green (55045), Lafayette (55065), Rock (55105), Walworth (55127)
WV Wayne (54099)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Cuyahoga (04110002)*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Hocking (05030204)*, Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Big Sandy (05070204)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)*, Little Miami (05090202), Upper Green (05110001)*, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Little Wabash (05120114)+
07 Root (07040008)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Des Plaines (07120004)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)
08 Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Upper Saline (08040203)
10 Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)*, Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Lower Cottonwood (11070203)+, Upper Neosho (11070204)+, Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Spring (11070207)+, Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Illinois (11110103)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A fish that reaches a standard length of about 9 cm.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns apparently in spring.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes clear to moderately turbid waters of large creeks and small to large rivers; in areas of moderate flow (usually riffles) over fine gravel or occasionally rocky substrate (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Possible spawning occurred in meter-deep swift water adjacent to a gravel bar (Smith 1979).
Length: 9 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Carlson, Douglas M. 1998. Species Accounts for the rare fishes of New York. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Bureau of Fisheries, Endangered Fish Project. 95pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Eddy, S., and J. C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley. Third edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 414 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., and E. B. Speaker.  2012.  Iowa fish and fishing.  Literary Licensing, LLC, Whitefish, Montana.  278 pp.

  • Harris, J. L. 1986. Systematics, distribution, and biology of fishes currently allocated to Erimystax (Jordan), a subgenus of Hypbopsis (Cyprinidae). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 335 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Hatch, J. T., and K. P. Schmidt. Gravel Chub, Erimystax x-punctatus (Hubbs and Crowe). Unpublished manuscript. 5 pp.

  • LTRMP  2016.  Mississippi River pools 4 and 8 fish survey data (1989-2015).  Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, fisheries database browser [web application].  Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.  <http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/data_library/fisheries/fish1_query.html>.  Accessed 25 April 2016. 

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • NatureServe.  2015.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 26 April 2016.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • PLATT, D.R. 1974. VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SAND PRAIRIE NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION, HARVEY COUNTY, KANSAS. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 76(1): 51-73.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parker, B. and P. McKee. 1987. Status of the Gravel Chub, Hybopsis x-punctata, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101(2): 237-240.

  • Parker, B., P. McKee and R.R. Campbell. 1988. Updated status of the Gravel Chub, Hybopsis x-punctata, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102(1): 158-162.

  • Parker, B., P. McKee, and R.R. Campbell. [1987]. Updated status report on the gravel chub, Erimystax x-punctatus, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 10 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 1993. Stream survey results for the gravel chub (Erimystax x-punctatus) and black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 9+ pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 2000. Stream survey results for the Gravel Chub (Erimystax x-punctatus), Slender Madtom (Noturus exilis), and Bluntnose Darter (Etheostoma chlorosomum) in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 14 pp + figures.

  • Schmidt, K. P.  2014.  Noah's Fish Ark.  American Currents 39(1):8-12.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Simons, A. M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Erimystax (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) based on the cytochrome b gene. Copeia 2004:351-356.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2014. Gravel chub (Erimystax x-punctatus) overview. Available at: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/endangeredresources/animals.asp?mode=detail&speccode=afcjb50050.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.