Erimystax insignis - (Hubbs and Crowe, 1956)
Blotched Chub
Synonym(s): Hybopsis insignis
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Erimystax insignis (Hubbs and Crowe, 1956) (TSN 163823)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103900
Element Code: AFCJB50040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 107

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Erimystax
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Erimystax insignis
Taxonomic Comments: Removed from genus Hybopsis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Erimystax by Mayden (1989) and Coburn and Cavender (1992); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991).

Two subspecies: insignis and eristigma .

See Simons (2004) for information on the phylogenetic relationships of species in the genus Erimystax , based on mtDNA data.n mtDNA data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2012
Global Status Last Changed: 05Feb2008
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Occurs in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages of southern Kentucky, Tennessee, western Virginia, western North Carolina, northern Georgia, and northern Alabama; locally common; apparently doing well in most of the range, not significantly threatened.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Feb2008)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Georgia (S2), Kentucky (S1), North Carolina (S2), Tennessee (S4), Virginia (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The wide but often disjunctive range of this species includes the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages of southern Kentucky, Tennessee, western Virginia (more or less continuous distribution in the Clinch and Powell system and Copper Creek), western North Carolina, northern Georgia, and northern Alabama (Lee et al. 1980, Burr and Warren 1986, Menhinick 1991, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies insignis: Cumberland and lower and middle Tennessee rivers (as far upstream as the Sequatchie River). Subspecies eristigma: upper Tennessee River drainage, except Clinch and Powell rivers (in which the two subspecies intergrade).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Most occurrences are in Tennessee and Virginia, with a smaller number in adjacent states. Etnier and Starnes (1993) and Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) mapped well over 100 collection sites in Tennessee and Virginia.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown. This species has been characterized as moderately common in the heart of the range in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993), sporadic and uncommon in the upper Cumberland River system in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986), usually uncommon or common in the Clinch-Powell system, rare in the South Fork Holston River in Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), and very rare in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Overall, it is locally common (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Impoundments on the Tennessee River apparently eliminated some populations (Burr and Warren 1986).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: This species is apparently doing well in Tennessee and Virginia (W. Starnes and R. Jenkins, pers. comm., 1997). Warren et al. (2000) categorized each subspecies as "currently stable." Jelks et al. (2008) did not list this species as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) The wide but often disjunctive range of this species includes the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages of southern Kentucky, Tennessee, western Virginia (more or less continuous distribution in the Clinch and Powell system and Copper Creek), western North Carolina, northern Georgia, and northern Alabama (Lee et al. 1980, Burr and Warren 1986, Menhinick 1991, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).

Subspecies insignis: Cumberland and lower and middle Tennessee rivers (as far upstream as the Sequatchie River). Subspecies eristigma: upper Tennessee River drainage, except Clinch and Powell rivers (in which the two subspecies intergrade).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, GA, KY, NC, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Jackson (01071), Lauderdale (01077), Limestone (01083), Madison (01089)*, Marshall (01095)*
GA Fannin (13111), Towns (13281), Union (13291)
KY Calloway (21035)*, Cumberland (21057)*, Logan (21141), McCreary (21147)*, Warren (21227)*, Wayne (21231)*
NC Buncombe (37021), Cherokee (37039), Clay (37043), Henderson (37089), Madison (37115), Mitchell (37121), Transylvania (37175), Yancey (37199)
TN Blount (47009), Lawrence (47099)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Barren (05110002)+*, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+, Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Red (05130206)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+, Sequatchie (06020004), Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Blotched chub, Cyprinidae.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns late spring to early summer.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This chub inhabits rocky riffles, runs, or pools (above or below riffles) of usually clear, moderate to high gradient, cool and warm, medium to large streams and small rivers with clean gravel, rubble, or bedrock bottoms, usually in water less than 1 meter deep (Lee et al. 1980, Burr and Warren 1986, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011). Adults tend to be at the head of riffles in moderate to swift current, seldom in torrents or slow-moving pools (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Young initially occupy shallow areas with little or no current (Harris 1986).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats filamentous algae and various benthic invertebrates (Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Harris, J. L. 1986. Systematics, distribution, and biology of fishes currently allocated to Erimystax (Jordan), a subgenus of Hybopsis (Cyprinidae). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neill, J. M. Pierson, and R. D. Suttkus. 1989. Fishes of the Black Warrior River system in Alabama. Geological Survey of Alabama Bulletin 133. 201 pp.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simons, A. M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Erimystax (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) based on the cytochrome b gene. Copeia 2004:351-356.

  • Warren, M. L., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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