Erigeron radicatus - Hook.
Taprooted Fleabane
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Erigeron radicatus Hook. (TSN 502394)
French Common Names: vergerette racine pivotante
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158695
Element Code: PDAST3M3L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Erigeron
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Erigeron radicatus
Taxonomic Comments: Nesom (2004) re-circumscribes Erigeron radicatus and E. ochroleucus for his Flora of North America treatment, stating that "confusion has existed in the distinction between Erigeron radicatus and E. ochroleucus, but the hypothesis is advanced here that they are distinct species sympatric over a significant area. In this view, E. radicatus has a wider geographic distribution than previously recognized and E. ochroleucus is more restricted in range." Nesom thus adds southeastern Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Utah to the range of E. radicatus. This record is for E. radicatus in the more narrow sense of Kartesz (1999), excluding those parts of the distribution.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jun2008
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This predominantly alpine to subalpine herb is known from western and central Montana, east-central Idaho, western Wyoming, southern and western Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and west-central North Dakota. Approximately 34 occurrences are presumed extant in WY, AB, SK, and ND; at least 6, and possibly more, sites are known in ID. In Montana, known from at least a dozen mountain ranges and over two dozen specimen collections. In Montana, most collections describe the abundance as common at the collection site, with reports of some locally abundant sites in Wyoming and Saskatchewan as well; a few populations in the low hundreds of plants have been counted throughout the range. Threats to most populations are assumed to be low (and populations are assumed to be stable) due to the rugged, high-elevation habitat. However, some Alberta occurrences occur in dry mixedgrass prairie, where they are potentially threatened by land conversion or overgrazing, and three recently-noted Saskatchewan occurrences may soon be destroyed by a proposed mine.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (08Mar2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Idaho (S3), Montana (S3S4), North Dakota (S1), Wyoming (SU)
Canada Alberta (S2), Saskatchewan (S2)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1996)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known from western and central Montana (at least a dozen mountain ranges); east-central Idaho (at least the Lost River ,Lemhi, and Beaverhead Ranges); western Wyoming (at least the Beartooth, Absaroka, Wyoming, Gros Ventre, and northern Wind River ranges); southern and western Alberta, where it has a broad but highly disjunct range with occurences in montane and subalpine regions, as well as dry mixedgrass prairie; southern Saskatchewan; and west-central North Dakota (Dunn County). Using GIS tools, total range extent was calculated to be approximately 700,000 km2.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, Area of Occupancy is estimated to be 268 km2 at a minimum, based on mapped occurrences and conservative estimates for Idaho and Montana.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 34 occurrences are presumed extant in Wyoming, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and North Dakota, with an additional 11 occurrences not recently revisited in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Idaho and Montana do not currently track this species; the number of occurrences in those states is unknown. In Idaho, the species was known from 6 recently-visited sites as of 1990 (US Forest Service 1990); in that year, it was removed from Idaho's "Plants of Conservation Concern" list, for reason "common, no threat." However, it appears that the primary reason for its removal was lack of threats rather than discovery of many additional sites; in 1999, Michael Mancuso (pers. comm.) described its status as "not known from tons of sites in Idaho, but few threats within its high-elevation habitat." In Montana, it is "known from at least a dozen mountain ranges and over two dozen specimen collections from western and central Montana. MT is not currently tracking occurrences due to its overall abundance, widespread distribution in the state and apparent lack of threats due to its high elevation habitat" (S. Mincemoyer pers. comm. 2008).

Population Size Comments: Estimated to be 1,000-10,000 plants in Alberta (T. Kemper pers. comm. 2008) and 50-250 plants in North Dakota (J. Parks pers. comm. 2008). Unknown in Saskatchewan; counts of 250, 6, and 2 plants have been recorded at three sites, and two other sites were described as "locally plentiful"and "locally abundant." Similarly, in Wyoming, overall size unknown, with counts of 67 plants and low hundreds of plants recorded at two sites, two other sites each described as "locally abundant", and one other site described as "locally common in small area." In Montana, most collections describe the abundance as common at the collection site (S. Mincemoyer pers. comm. 2008). Population size in Idaho unknown.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: At least 5 mapped occurrences are believed to have excellent or good viability, including 4 in Wyoming and 1 in North Dakota. Some Montana occurrences likely have at least good viability as well, as "most [Montana] collections describe the abundance as common at the collection site" (S. Mincemoyer pers. comm. 2008).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Most occurrences are found at high elevations in the mountains, where threats are low. However, some Alberta occurrences occur in dry mixedgrass prairie, where they are potentially threatened by land conversion or overgrazing. Three recently-noted Saskatchewan occurrences may soon be destroyed by a proposed mine. Recreational livestock were noted as a potential threat to the species in the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming (Proctor and Austin 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: In Wyoming, habitat and most populations are presumed to be stable (Mills and Fertig 2000); this assumption likely applies to Montana, Idaho, and some Alberta occurrences as well. Some threats noted in Alberta and Saskatchewan, however.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known from western and central Montana (at least a dozen mountain ranges); east-central Idaho (at least the Lost River ,Lemhi, and Beaverhead Ranges); western Wyoming (at least the Beartooth, Absaroka, Wyoming, Gros Ventre, and northern Wind River ranges); southern and western Alberta, where it has a broad but highly disjunct range with occurences in montane and subalpine regions, as well as dry mixedgrass prairie; southern Saskatchewan; and west-central North Dakota (Dunn County). Using GIS tools, total range extent was calculated to be approximately 700,000 km2.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT, ND, WY
Canada AB, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ND Dunn (38025)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Lower Little Missouri (10110205)+, Knife (10130201)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Horse (10180012)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+
17 Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with a taproot and much-branched rootstalk. Stems up to 5 cm tall. Leaves mostly basal (sometimes a few stem leaves), oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, up to 2 cm long and 2.5 mm wide, hairless or with fine hairs. Flower heads borne singly on each stem. Ray flowers white, 20-50, 5-8 mm long; involucre viscid and villous. Pappus of 6-12 fragile bristles (US Forest Service 1990).
General Description: From Mills and Fertig (2000): A perennial herb from a multi-branched, compact, woody rootstalk. Stems are up to 5 cm tall and have fine, spreading to appressed hairs. Leaves are mostly all basal (sometimes with a few stem leaves), linear to narrowly oblanceolate, up to 2 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, and hairless to finely hairy on the surface. Flower heads are borne singly on each stem and have a sticky-hairy involucre. Ray flowers are white and 5-8 mm long. Disk corollas are 2.3-3 mm long. The pappus consists of 6-12 fragile bristles.
Technical Description: From Cronquist (1947): Perennial herb with a taproot and branching caudex, the primary branches usually again branched; stem 5 cm high or less, finely hirsute or villous, especially upwards, with spreading or sometimes appressed hairs; leaves oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, tufted, all or nearly all in a basal cluster, up to 2 cm long and 2.5 mm wide, the surfaces glabrous or sparsely and finely hairy, the margins finely more or less ciliate; cauline leaves 2 or 3, reduced and linear, more hairy than the basal ones, or absent; head solitary, the disk about 7-10 mm wide; involucre about 5 mm high, viscid and finely villous with short hairs; phyllaries relatively broad, narrowly lanceolate or lance-oblong, green or greenish, slightly imbricate, or subequal; ligules about 20-50, white, 5-8 mm long, 1.9-2.2 mm wide, disk-corollas about 2.3-3.0 mm long, the tube 0.5-0.7 mm, the lobes 0.5-0.6 mm; style-appendages deltoid, acute or acutish, 0.2-0.3 mm long; pappus double, the outer of fine and not very conspicuous squamellae or setae, the inner of about 6-12 fragile bristles; achenes 2-nerved, hairy.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Can be distinguished from Erigeron ochroleucus by its lack of prominent stem leaves, shorter basal leaves (< 2 cm long vs. up to 12 cm long), shorter disk corollas (2.3-3.0 mm long vs. 2.5-4.5 mm long), and less numerous pappus bristles (6-12 fragile bristles). Can be distinguished from by E. ochroleucus var. scribneri by the coarser pubescence of its stems, leaves, and involucre and its well-developed and branched caudex which forms something of a cushion (vs. a mere stout crown at the base, or only slightly branched caudex). Can be distinguished from E. rydbergii by its finely hirsute or villous stem (vs. stem with spreading hairs), oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate leaves (vs. rounded leaves), shorter disk corollas (2.3-3.0 mm long), and scanty fragile pappus (6-12 fragile bristles). Can be distinguished from E. simplex by its narrower leaves (2.5 mm wide), lack of glandular stems, and pappus of 6-12 fragile bristles, all of one length (vs. mixed long and short bristles) (Cronquist 1947, Mills and Fertig 2000).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Typically dry, open, rocky sites in alpine, sometimes subalpine, areas. Substrate often derived from limestone. Settings include rocky slopes and hillsides (incl. talus slopes), rocky ridges and flats, summits and hilltops, outcrops, ledges and crevices, and fellfields. Associated vegetation may be alpine tundra, krummholz, or dry grassland. (1400-)1600-2800(-3400) m. In addition, at least one site in Alberta occurs in a dry mixedgrass prairie at lower elevation; some Saskatchewan sites may be at lower elevation as well.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Apr1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gries, D./Mancuso, M., rev. K. Gravuer (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cronquist, A. 1947. Systematic treatment of the species: [Erigeron peregrinus-Erigeron nanus]. Brittonia 6(2): 142-192.

  • Cronquist, A. 1955. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 5: Compositae. Pages 1-343. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

  • Dorn, R. D. 1992. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, second edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Evert, E. F. 2010. Vascular Plants of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Annotated Catalog and Atlas. Park Ridge, IL.

  • Fertig, W. 1992. A floristic survey of the west slope of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Masters Thesis. Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 1992. Checklist of the vascular plant flora of the west slope of the Wind River Range and status report on the sensitive plant species of Bridger-Teton National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for the Bridger-Teton National Forest by the Rocky Mountain Herbarium, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 1997. Plant species of special concern on Shoshone National Forest: 1996 survey results. Unpublished report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 1998. The status of rare plants on Shoshone National Forest: 1995-97 survey results. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. Rare vascular plant species in the Wyoming portion of the Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Ecoregion. Prepared for the Wyoming Nature Conservancy by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. and G. Jones. 1994. Establishment record for Osborn Mountain Research Natural Area within Bridger-Teton National Forest, Sublette County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for U.S. Forest Service Region 4 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W., R. L. Hartman, and B. E. Nelson. 1991. General floristic survey of the west slope of the Wind River Range, Bridger-Teton National Forest, 1990. Unpublished report prepared for the Bridger-Teton National Forest by the Rocky Mountain Herbarium, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 666 pp.

  • Harms, V.L., P.A. Ryan and J.A. Haraldson. 1992. The rare and endangered vascular plants of Saskatchewan. Prepared for the Saskatchewan Natural History Society. Unpubl.

  • Jones, G. P. and W. Fertig. 1999. Ecological evaluation of the potential Arrow Mountain Research Natural Area within the Shoshone National Forest, Fremont County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest, USDA Forest Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Jones, G. P. and W. Fertig. 1999. Ecological evaluation of the potential Beartooth Butte Research Natural Area within the Shoshone National Forest, Park County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest, USDA Forest Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kershaw, L., J. Gould, D. Johnson, and J. Lancaster. 2001. Rare vascular plants of Alberta. Univ. of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta and Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. 484pp.

  • Massatti, R. T. 2007. A floristic inventory of the East Slope of the Wind River Mountain Range and vicinity, Wyoming. Masters Thesis. Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Mills, S. and W. Fertig. 2000. State Species Abstract: Erigeron radicatus. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

  • Mills, S. and W. Fertig. 1996. Field guide to rare and Sensitive plants of the Shoshone National Forest. Report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Mills, S. and W. Fertig. 1996. Survey of plant species of special concern on the Shoshone National Forest, 1995. Unpublished report prepared for Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Mills, S., and W. Fertig. 2000b. Erigeron radicatus state species abstract. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database summaries posted for plant species of special concern [pdf files]. University of Wyoming, Laramie. Online. Available: http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/wyndd/Plants/state_spp_abstracts/E/Erigeron_radicatus.pdf (Accessed 2008)

  • Moseley, R.K. 1989. Field investigations of seven rare alpine plant species in the southern Lemhi Range and Beaverhead Mountains, Targhee National Forest. Prepared by the Natural Heritage Section, Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID.

  • Moss, E.H. 1994. Flora of Alberta. Second Edition revised by J.G. Packer. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  • Nesom, G. L. 2006. Erigeron. Pages 256-348 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae part 2. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

  • Nesom, G.L. 2004d. Taxonomic reevaluations in North American Erigeron (Asteraceae: Astereae). Sida 21(1):19-39.

  • Proctor, J. and G. Austin. 2002. USDA-Forest Service Region 2 Sensitive Species Evaluation Form: Erigeron radicatus (Taprooted Fleabane). Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/evalrationale/evaluations/dicots/erigeronradicatus.pdf (Accessed 2008).

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • Scott, R. W. 1997. The Alpine Flora of the Rocky Mountains; Volume 1. The Middle Rockies. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.

  • Steele, B., F. Johnson, and S. Brunsfield, eds. 1981. Vascular plant species of concern in Idaho. Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. 161 pp.

  • U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Region (USFS). 1990. Idaho and Wyoming endangered and sensitive plant field guide. U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 192 pp.

  • Welp, L., W.F. Fertig, G.P. Jones, G.P. Beauvais, and S.M. Ogle. 2000. Fine filter analysis of the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone National Forests in Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

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