Eptesicus fuscus - (Beauvois, 1796)
Big Brown Bat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois, 1796) (TSN 180008)
French Common Names: grande chauve-souris brune, sérotine brune
Spanish Common Names: Un Murciélago
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105810
Element Code: AMACC04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
Image 7532

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eptesicus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eptesicus fuscus
Taxonomic Comments: Koopman (1989) included both E. fuscus and E. lynni in E. serotinus. Jones et al. (1992) used the name E. fuscus for this species. Koopman (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) and Simmons (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) listed E. fuscus and E. serotinus as separate species but noted that the two may be conspecific; Koopman and Simmons both included E. lynni in E. fuscus.

Eptesicus fuscus exhibits significant morphological variation across its range and is represented by 11 subspecies (Agosta 2002). Subspecies fuscus and pallidus apparently intergrade in northwestern Texas (Jones and Manning 1990).

The relationships of the genera Eptesicus and Pipistrellus are unclear; for several Old World species there is some uncertainty as to which is the appropriate genus; the species of Eptesicus that are chromosomally characterized by 2n=50 and FN=48 form a genetically homogeneous group, despite the included taxa coming from different continents (Hill and Harrison 1987, Morales et al. 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Very large range extends from North America to northern South America; common in much of range; large number of roosts and locations; uses a wide range of habitats; readily uses human-made structures as roosts; fatalities occur at wind energy facilities but probably have little effect on the overall population; population affected to unknown degree by white-nose syndrome (WNS) in eastern North America, but often uses non-cave hibernation sites that are not conducive to development of WNS.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,NNRM (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Alaska (SNA), Arizona (S4S5), Arkansas (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S4), Florida (S3), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S3), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S2), Maine (S4), Maryland (S5B,S5N), Massachusetts (S4S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S5B,S5N), Missouri (S4), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S3S4), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S3), New Mexico (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (S5?), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (S4), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S5), Washington (S4), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S2S4), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4S5), British Columbia (S5), Manitoba (S4S5B), New Brunswick (S3), Northwest Territories (SU), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from southern Canada (including all provinces bordering the United States) south to northern Colombia, northwestern Venezuela, and northern Brazil; all Mexican states except those of Yucatan Peninsula (in northern Mexico most prevalent in eastern and western Sierra Madre bordering arid midlands of Mexican Plateau); in and along the central mountain chain in Central America; Greater Antilles; Bahamas; Dominica and Barbados in Lesser Antilles; perhaps Alaska (Honacki et al. 1982; Kurta and Baker 1990; Jones 1989; Koopman, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of observation/collection sites, an abundance of suitable roosting sites, and a very large number of locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000. This bat is common in much of its wide range. Maternity colonies may include up to several hundred adult females but generally fewer than 100. See Arita (1993) for information on population size in Mexico.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: On a range-wide scale, no major threats have been identified. Regionally or locally, the following factors may be significant.

This is one of several bat species that may be affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS is caused by a cold-loving fungus and has killed millions of cave-roosting bats in eastern North America since 2007. However, WNS has not been detected in most of the range of E. fuscus. Additionally, big brown bats frequently hibernate in human-associated sites (e.g., buildings, where WNS is not known to thrive), as well as in caves and mines, so these bats may be less vulnerable to severe WNS-caused population declines than are bats that hibernate only in caves or mines. Furthermore, in caves in New York, WNS caused severe declines in Myotis lucifugus but did not affect E. fuscus, which appeared to be resistant to WNS (Frank et al. 2014).

Because E. fuscus appears to be a habitat generalist, readily uses human-made structures as roosts, and takes advantage of insect concentrations near lights, habitat is probably a less important conservation component than it is for other bats. However, current forestry practices may have a negative impact on tree-roosting bat species, and foraging activity has been shown to decrease with increasing urbanization, possibly because of lower insect abundance (Agosta 2002).

Big brown bats and other species that roost in buildings are often perceived as a nuisance and are vulnerable to exclusion and eradication attempts (Pierson 1998, Agosta 2002).

Although this species is nonmigratory or a short-distance migrant, it incurs significant mortality at some wind energy facilities in the Midwest (Jain et al. 2011, Grodsky et al. 2012). Throughout most of eastern North America, wind-turbine kills of this species are common but much less frequent than those of hoary, eastern red, and silver-haired bats (Johnson 2005, Arnett et al. 2008). Overall, Arnett and Baerwald (2013) estimated that approximately 26,000-52,300 E. fuscus were killed at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada during the period 2000-2011.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but abundance may have declined somewhat as white-nose syndrome (WNS) affected populations in eastern North America. However, the degree to which WNS has affected big brown bat populations in eastern North America is unknown, and the range-wide population may have been relatively stable (decline of less than 10 percent) over recent decades.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain. Populations in the northern part of the range may have increased because of the availability of buildings with heated attics as winter hibernacula (Whitaker and Gummer 2000, in Agosta 2002). Given widespread use of buildings, this may apply to the overall population.

See Arita (1993) for general information on conservation status in Mexico.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Long-term monitoring should be initiated or continued; these programs should include the collection of demographic data suitable for risk assessment modeling (Agosta 2002). Of particular interest is the possibility that E. fuscus is expanding in the northern part of its range because of the availability of buildings with heated attics. A consequence of range expansion could be competition with other bat species (Agosta 2002).

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from southern Canada (including all provinces bordering the United States) south to northern Colombia, northwestern Venezuela, and northern Brazil; all Mexican states except those of Yucatan Peninsula (in northern Mexico most prevalent in eastern and western Sierra Madre bordering arid midlands of Mexican Plateau); in and along the central mountain chain in Central America; Greater Antilles; Bahamas; Dominica and Barbados in Lesser Antilles; perhaps Alaska (Honacki et al. 1982; Kurta and Baker 1990; Jones 1989; Koopman, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Ceballos, 2001; NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2005; Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), La Paz (04012), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021), Yavapai (04025)
FL Alachua (12001), Columbia (12023)*, Escambia (12033), Hamilton (12047)*, Hillsborough (12057)*, Madison (12079), Marion (12083), Polk (12105), Suwannee (12121)*, Walton (12131)
IA Lucas (19117), Madison (19121), Marion (19125)
ID Ada (16001)*, Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Clearwater (16035)*, Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043)*, Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
IN Crawford (18025), Greene (18055), Harrison (18061), Hendricks (18063), Jefferson (18077), Marion (18097), Martin (18101), Monroe (18105), Washington (18175)
LA Allen (22003), Beauregard (22011)*, Bienville (22013), De Soto (22031), Grant (22043), Jackson (22049)*, Jefferson (22051)*, La Salle (22059), Lincoln (22061)*, Livingston (22063)*, Natchitoches (22069), Orleans (22071)*, Ouachita (22073), Plaquemines (22075)*, Rapides (22079), Richland (22083), Sabine (22085)*, St. Bernard (22087)*, St. Helena (22091)*, Tangipahoa (22105)*, Vernon (22115), Winn (22127)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Beltrami (27007), Carlton (27017), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029), Fillmore (27045), Hubbard (27057), Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Lincoln (27081), Lyon (27083), Morrison (27097), Pine (27115), Ramsey (27123), St. Louis (27137)
MS Adams (28001), Hinds (28049), Newton (28101)
NM Sierra (35051)
NV Carson City (32510), Churchill (32001), Clark (32003), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Humboldt (32013), Lander (32015)*, Lincoln (32017), Lyon (32019), Nye (32023), Pershing (32027), Storey (32029)*, Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
SC Beaufort (45013), Georgetown (45043), Greenville (45045), Lancaster (45057), Laurens (45059), Pickens (45077), Sumter (45085)
WA Adams (53001)+, Benton (53005)+, Chelan (53007)+, Columbia (53013)+, Douglas (53017)+, Ferry (53019)+, Garfield (53023)+, Grant (53025)+, Grays Harbor (53027)+, Island (53029)+, Jefferson (53031)+, King (53033)+, Kittitas (53037)+, Klickitat (53039)+, Lincoln (53043)+, Mason (53045)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Pend Oreille (53051)+, Pierce (53053)+, San Juan (53055)+, Skagit (53057)+, Skamania (53059)+, Snohomish (53061)+, Spokane (53063)+, Stevens (53065)+, Thurston (53067)+, Whatcom (53073)+, Yakima (53077)+
WI Calumet (55015), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Dodge (55027), Door (55029), Dunn (55033), Florence (55037), Fond Du Lac (55039), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049), Iron (55051), Jackson (55053), Juneau (55057), Lafayette (55065), Manitowoc (55071), Monroe (55081), Outagamie (55087), Pierce (55093), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), Sawyer (55113), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123), Waukesha (55133)
WV Boone (54005)
WY Albany (56001), Crook (56011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Black (03040205)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+, Wateree (03050104)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Saluda (03050109)+, Santee (03050112)+, Broad-St. Helena (03050208)+, Calibogue Sound-Wright River (03060110)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Peace (03100101)+*, Alafia (03100204)+*, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+*, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Lower Suwannee (03110205)+, Perdido Bay (03140107)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)+
04 St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Brule (04030106)+, Wolf (04030202)+
05 Coal (05050009)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Root (07040008)+, Upper Chippewa (07050001)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, South Skunk (07080105)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+
08 Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202)+, Bayou D'arbonne (08040206)+, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Castor (08040302)+, Dugdemona (08040303)+, Little (08040304)+, Boeuf (08050001)+, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+, Bayou Pierre (08060203)+, Homochitto (08060205)+, Amite (08070202)+*, Tickfaw (08070203)+*, Lake Maurepas (08070204)+*, Tangipahoa (08070205)+*, Bayou Teche (08080102)+, Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+, Whisky Chitto (08080204)+, West Fork Calcasieu (08080205)+*, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)+*, Lake Pontchartrain (08090202)+*, Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203)+*, East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301)+*
09 Vermilion (09030002)+, Big Fork (09030006)+
10 Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+
11 Bayou Pierre (11140206)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+, Black Lake Bayou (11140209)+
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004)+*, Lower Sabine (12010005)+*
13 El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+*, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Silver (15020005)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Bill Williams (15030204)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Brawley Wash (15050304)+, Black (15060101)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Tonto (15060105)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+*, Middle Humboldt (16040105)+*, Rock (16040106)+, Reese (16040107)+, Lower Humboldt (16040108)+*, Little Humboldt (16040109)+*, Upper Quinn (16040201)+, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+*, Granite Springs Valley (16050104)+*, Upper Carson (16050201)+, Carson Desert (16050203)+, East Walker (16050301)+, Dixie Valley (16060001)+, Gabbs Valley (16060002)+*, Southern Big Smoky Valley (16060003)+, Northern Big Smoky Valley (16060004)+*, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+, Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215), Pend Oreille (17010216), Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Lower Spokane (17010307), Little Spokane (17010308), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Kettle (17020002), Colville (17020003), Chief Joseph (17020005), Similkameen (17020007), Methow (17020008), Lake Chelan (17020009), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Wenatchee (17020011), Moses Coulee (17020012), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Naches (17030002), Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003), Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+*, Lower Henrys (17040203)+*, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Birch (17040216)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+*, Weiser (17050124)+*, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107), Palouse (17060108)+, Rock (17060109), Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Little Salmon (17060210)+, Lower Selway (17060302)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101), Walla Walla (17070102), Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105), Klickitat (17070106), Upper Chehalis (17100103), Strait of Georgia (17110002), San Juan Islands (17110003), Nooksack (17110004), Upper Skagit (17110005), Sauk (17110006), Lower Skagit (17110007), Stillaguamish (17110008), Snoqualmie (17110010), Lake Washington (17110012), Puyallup (17110014), Nisqually (17110015), Deschutes (17110016), Hood Canal (17110018), Puget Sound (17110019)
18 Upper Amargosa (18090202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large brown bat.
Reproduction Comments: Copulates in fall and intermittently throughout winter. In temperate regions, ovulation and fertilization delayed until after hibernation. Gestation lasts 2 months. Young are born May-July, with slight trend toward earlier parturition in lower latitudes (Barbour and Davis 1969); mostly late May to June in Texas (Schmidly 1991). Litter size usually is 1 in western North America, 2 in eastern North America and Cuba. Lactation lasts 32-40 days; young fly at 4-5 weeks. Males usually are sexually mature in first fall; not all females reproduce at end of first year. Capable of living at least 20 years, though few actually attain old age.

Nursery colony rarely numbers more than a few hundred (mostly 25-75 adults in the eastern U.S.).

Ecology Comments: Males are most often solitary in summer, or they may roost with females or in all-male colonies. Winter colonies rarely number more than a few hundred. This species is less gregarious in winter; usually solitary in crevices, sometimes in small groups. When young are flying, males may join nursery groups to form large late-summer colonies (Barbour and Davis 1969).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Fairly sedentary. Probably remains within 50 km of birthplace (Barbour and Davis 1969). Rarely moves more than 80 km between summer and winter roosts, though there is evidence that some individuals in the Midwest migrate south for winter.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Habitats range from high mountains to low deserts, including cities. Summer roosts generally are in buildings, bridges, hollow trees, spaces behind exfoliating bark, rock crevices, tunnels, or cliff swallow nests, in sites that do not get too hot. Maternity colonies may form in attics, barns, rock crevices, or tree cavities. Most adult females return to the same maternity roost site in successive years. Caves, mines, and especially buildings and human-made structures are used for hibernation.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes flying insects; small beetles are the most common prey in many areas. Large size, powerful jaw muscles, and robust teeth allow predation on larger insects with tough exoskeletons. This species is basically a generalist in foraging habitat; it forages over land or water, in clearings and along lake edges, around lights in rural areas, and in various other situations. Individuals seem to prefer foraging among tree foliage rather than above or below the forest canopy (Schmidly 1991). Distance from day roosts to foraging areas averages about 1-2 km (Brigham 1991).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Initial foraging period occurs within 5 hours after sunset; most activity within second hour after sunset; subsequently may retire to night roost. Flies less than 2 hours each night. In Alberta, both sexes exhibited daily torpor during the gestation, lactation, and postlactation periods; males were torpid more frequently and used deeper torpor than did reproductive females (Hamilton and Barclay 1994).

In temperate areas many do not appear at hibernacula until November (Barbour and Davis 1969). Apparently does not hibernate in Cuba; may become torpid on cool winter nights (Kurta and Baker 1990).

Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 13 centimeters
Weight: 18 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: See Greenhall (1982) for information on house bat management. Introducing lights in roost area in building may reduce population by 41-96% (see Kurta and Baker 1990).
Biological Research Needs: The following biological research needs were identified by Agosta (2002): Research is needed to assess risks to reproduction and survival from pesticide exposure. Additional studies are needed to better understand roost selection by bats including both tree and building roosts. The level and effect of disturbance at roosts needs study, particularly in buildings that house maternity colonies. Studies that identify sources of population decline and important life-history requirements of abundant bats like E. fuscus could be useful in directing research for rare and endangered bat species.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small and Medium Bats

Use Class: Bachelor colony
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of males during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In two studies, male MYOTIS SODALIS foraged a maximum of 2.0 and 4.2 kilometers from their summer roosts (summarized in USFWS 1999).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring breeding population during spring/summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.
Date: 02Jul2014
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Hibernaculum
Subtype(s): Pre-hibernation roost site, Hibernaculum
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of hibernating individuals. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. EO also includes immediately surrounding areas used by bats immediately before hibernation, where these areas are known.
Mapping Guidance: Cave/mine passages should be projected to the surface for the purpose of mapping EO boundary.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: These bats sometimes move long distances between different hibernacula. For example, individuals of M. LUCIFUGUS and M. SEPTENTRIONALIS have been recorded flying up to 219 and 89 kilometers respectively between hibernacula during the winter months (Linzey 1998, Griffin 1940). However,
such movements are not a good basis for distinguishing occurrences (occurrences would become too expansive). The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate hibernacula.

Separation distances suggested take into account the fact that, during the fall, some bats (e.g. M. SODALIS) swarm and mate at their hibernaculum, and males roost in trees nearby during the day and fly to the cave during the night. In two studies, M. SODALIS males roosted within a maximum of 5.6 kilometers of the hibernaculum (Kiser and Elliott 1996; Craig Stihler, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, pers. observ., October 1996, cited in USFWS 1999).

Although they do not generally fly from one hibernaculum to another, hibernating bats are known to wake and move around to some extent within their hibernating site. As long as the areas are connected (even though they may not be passable by humans) the bats could be expected to move from one part of the system to another (e.g. MYOTIS SODALIS, Clawson et al. 1980).

Date: 29Mar2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Maternity colony
Subtype(s): Colony Site, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population of breeding females and their young during summer (approximately May through August). Includes mist net captures away from colony sites obtained during the summer months even if the associated roost site is not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone, although caution must be used in determining Location Use Class for such observations during the breeding season.
Mapping Guidance: The EO includes both the colony site and the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations.

Nursing female Myotis sodalis moved an average of 1.04 kilometers from roost to center of foraging area, giving a mean foraging diameter of 2.08 kilometers; however, post-lactating females moved more than twice as far, travelling an average of 2.6 kilometers (Garner and Gardner 1992). In Indiana, 11 foraging adult females that were tracked for 2-7 days moved up to 8.4 km from their roost; home range during this brief period averaged 3.35 square kilometers (Sparks et al. 2005). Myotis grisescens females move up to 6.6 kilometers (Tuttle 1976). Female M. septentrionalis had an average foraging home range of 61.1 hectares (Menzel et al. 1999), equivalent to a circle with a diameter of 880 meters.

Date: 08Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Diurnal Roost, Foraging Area, Nocturnal Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A site occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population of migrating or otherwise nonhibernating individuals during the nonbreeding season. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals. In certain regions, recorded echolocation sequences of individuals may be considered reliable observations for certain species that can be confidently identified by their echolocation calls alone.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

In California, Fellers and Pierson (2002) studied a group of Corynorhinus townsendii inhabiting a maternity colony site after the nursery season had passed and found that the mean center of female foraging activity was 3.2 kilometers from the diurnal roost, whereas the mean center of male foraging activity was only 1.3 kilometers from the roost. No bats traveled more than 10.5 kilometers from the roost, and individuals showed considerable loyalty to the primary roost. Otherwise, little movement data are available.

Date: 19Apr2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a persisting or recurring population during summer  (approximately May through August). Includes counts of individuals from roost sites obtained during the summer months during pup rearing and summer residence periods. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and detailed documentation of one or more individuals during roost counts.
Mapping Guidance: EO includes both the colony site and an approximation of the associated foraging areas. If separate, the colony site and foraging areas are bounded by separate polygons; that is, areas over which the bats simply commute to and from foraging areas and the colony are not included in the EO.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites.
Date: 01Dec2017
Author: Staffen, R.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jul2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Apr2014
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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