Epioblasma obliquata obliquata - (Rafinesque, 1820)
Catspaw
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Epioblasma obliquata obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 80324)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.113439
Element Code: IMBIV16111
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Epioblasma
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Epioblasma obliquata obliquata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Dec2006
Global Status Last Changed: 17Mar1998
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Only one reproducing population remains and its long-term viability is questionable.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (22Jul2003)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SX), Indiana (SX), Kentucky (S1), Ohio (S1), Tennessee (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population (10Jul1990)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: EN - Endangered
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix I
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Historically the entire species was widespread in the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee River drainages in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama (USFWS, 1990; Hoggarth et al., 1995; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Cicerello and Schuster (2003) cite Kentucky distribution as formerly in the Ohio River and Green River to the Licking River. Now reproducing populations only exist in the Killubuck Creek, Ohio, the Cumberland River in Tennessee, and the Green River in Kentucky (USFWS, 1990). Johnson (1978) did not differentiate between the two subspecies, and it is difficult to determine the range of these taxa based upon his work. E. obliquata obliquata as defined here once occurred in the Scioto River in Ohio; in the Lower Ohio River (Goodrich and van der Schalie, 1944) and its Kentucky tributaries of the Licking, Green, and Kentucky Rivers (Johnson, 1978); at Muscle Shoals, Alabama; in the Tennessee River and Caney Fork and Harpeth Rivers of the Cumberland River in Tennessee; and the Cumberland River proper in Kentucky (Johnson, 1978). It is apparently extirpated from Ohio, Alabama (Mirarchi et al., 2004), and Indiana and is now known only from Kentucky and Tennessee. Stansbery believed both subspecies were present in the Wabash River with E. obliquata perobliqua occurring more in the north.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Three extant populations of the Epioblasma obliquata obliquata are thought to exist; one in the Green River in Kentucky, Cumberland River in Tennessee, and Killbuck Creek in Ohio (Isom et al., 1979; Hoggarth et al., 1995; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998; Watters et al., 2009). In Indiana, museum records are known for the Tippecanoe River (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990).

Population Size: 1 - 250 individuals
Population Size Comments: Epioblasma obliquata obliquata is thought to be reproducing only in Killbuck Creek, Ohio. Only 15 live individuals were found in 1994.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None (zero)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Three extant populations of the Epioblasma obliquata obliquata are thought to exist; one in the Green River in Kentucky, Cumberland River in Tennessee, and Killbuck Creek in Ohio (Hoggarth et al., 1995; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Smith (1971) ranked the causes of extirpation or declines in fish species as follows: siltation, drainage of bottomland lakes, swamps, and prairie marshes, desiccation during drought, species introductions, pollution, impoundments, and increased water temperatures. All of these factors render habitats unsuitable, cause extirpations, and lead to the isolation of populations thereby increasing their vulnerability to extirpation for many aquatic species (including mussels) throughout North America. Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have destroyed mussel populations in the Great Lakes and significantly reduced mussels in many of the large rivers of eastern North America. Zebra mussels have the potential to severely threaten other populations especially if they make their way into smaller streams. Pollution through point (industrial and residential discharge) and non-point (siltation, herbicide and fertilizer run-off) sources is perhaps the greatest on-going threat to this species and most freshwater mussels. Lowered dissolved oxygen content and elevated ammonia levels (frequently associated with agricultural runoff and sewage discharge) have been shown to be lethal to some species of freshwater naiads (Horne and McIntosh, 1979). Residential, mineral and industrial development also pose a significant threat. Rotenone, a toxin used to kill fish in bodies of water for increased sport fishery quality, has been shown to be lethal to mussels as well (Heard, 1970). Destruction of habitat through stream channelization and maintenance and the construction of dams is still a threat in some areas. Impoundments reduce currents that are necessary for basic physiological activities such as feeding, waste removal and reproduction. In addition, reduced water flow typically results in a reduction in water oxygen levels and a settling out of suspended solids (silt, etc.), both of which are detrimental. Dredging of streams has an immediate effect on existing populations by physically removing and destroying individuals. Dredging also affects the long-term recolonization abilities by destroying much of the potential habitat, making the substrates and flow rates uniform throughout the system. Natural predators include raccoons, otter, mink, muskrats, turtles and some birds (Simpson, 1899; Boepple and Coker, 1912; Evermann and Clark, 1918; Coker et al., 1921; Parmalee, 1967; Snyder and Snyder, 1969). Domestic animals such as hogs can root mussel beds to pieces (Meek and Clark, 1912). Fishes, particularly catfish, Ictalurus spp. and Ameirus spp.., and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, also consume large numbers of unionids.
USFWS (1990; 1992) summarizes the major threats to the subspecies. Many historic populations were eliminated when river sections they inhabited were impounded (similarly affected host fish). The Green River in Kentucky has experienced water quality problems related to impacts from oil and gas production in the watershed, and commercial mussel fishing has occurred in the watershed in recent years past. Individuals still surviving in the Cumberland River watershed are potentially threatened by gravel dredging, channel maintenance, and commercial mussel fishing (recent past only- incidental take).

Short-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Short-term Trend Comments: This species has been extirpated from a huge portion of its range reduced to only three extant populations. Many of the historic populations were lost when the river sections they inhabited were impounded. The subspecies is extirpated in Indiana and Illinois (Middle Wabash- Little Vermillion), and Alabama and nearly so in Ohio (extirpated from Muskingum River mainstem- Watters, 1995), Tennessee, and Kentucky (USFWS, 1990).

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species has been extirpated from a huge portion of its range reduced to only three extant populations. Many of the historic populations were lost when the river sections they inhabited were impounded. The subspecies is extirpated in Indiana and Illinois (Middle Wabash- Little Vermillion), and Alabama and nearly so in Ohio (extirpated from Muskingum River mainstem, Ohio River at Cincinnati, Portsmouth, and Marietta, Scioto River at Circleville; and Walhonding River- Watters, 1995; Watters et al., 2009), Tennessee, and Kentucky (USFWS, 1990). It historically occurred (over 50 years ago) in what is now the Meldahl dam pool in Ohio/Kentucky (Watters and Flaute, 2010).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The decline in the overall range suggests that this mussel is not tolerant of poor water quality. It is sensitive to pollution, siltation, habitat perturbation, inundation, and loss of glochidial hosts. It was not found in the heavily modified portion of Killbuck Creek that lacked wooded riparian corridors or had significant erosion problems.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Historical distribution is reasonably well known. Given the discovery of the Killbuck Creek population in 1994 (Hoggarth et al., 1995) additional survey work in areas likely to support this species is warranted. Periodic status surveys are needed to monitor changes in the remaining populations of this mussel.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) Historically the entire species was widespread in the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee River drainages in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama (USFWS, 1990; Hoggarth et al., 1995; Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Cicerello and Schuster (2003) cite Kentucky distribution as formerly in the Ohio River and Green River to the Licking River. Now reproducing populations only exist in the Killubuck Creek, Ohio, the Cumberland River in Tennessee, and the Green River in Kentucky (USFWS, 1990). Johnson (1978) did not differentiate between the two subspecies, and it is difficult to determine the range of these taxa based upon his work. E. obliquata obliquata as defined here once occurred in the Scioto River in Ohio; in the Lower Ohio River (Goodrich and van der Schalie, 1944) and its Kentucky tributaries of the Licking, Green, and Kentucky Rivers (Johnson, 1978); at Muscle Shoals, Alabama; in the Tennessee River and Caney Fork and Harpeth Rivers of the Cumberland River in Tennessee; and the Cumberland River proper in Kentucky (Johnson, 1978). It is apparently extirpated from Ohio, Alabama (Mirarchi et al., 2004), and Indiana and is now known only from Kentucky and Tennessee. Stansbery believed both subspecies were present in the Wabash River with E. obliquata perobliqua occurring more in the north.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALextirpated, INextirpated, KY, OH, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Colbert (01033)*, Lauderdale (01077)*
IN Parke (18121)*, Vermillion (18165)*
KY Boone (21015)*, Butler (21031), Campbell (21037)*, Cumberland (21057)*, Edmonson (21061)*, Greenup (21089)*, Hart (21099)*, Henderson (21101)*, Kenton (21117)*, Lewis (21135)*, Muhlenberg (21177)*, Ohio (21183)*, Pendleton (21191)*, Pulaski (21199)*, Warren (21227)
OH Coshocton (39031)
TN DeKalb (47041)*, Putnam (47141)*, Smith (47159), Trousdale (47169), Wilson (47189)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Walhonding (05040003)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Licking (05100101)+*, Upper Green (05110001)+, Middle Green (05110003)+*, Lower Green (05110005)+*, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+*, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+*, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+*, Caney (05130108)+*, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+*
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a freshwater mussel
Reproduction Comments: Host fish have been determined to be rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), stonecat (Noturus flavus), logperch (Percina caprodes), and blackside darter (Percina maculata) (Watters et al., 1999).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Inhabits large river systems in sand and gravel substrates in runs and riffles.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This subspecies was listed as federally endangered in the U.S. in 1990 and a recovery plan created (USFWS, 1990).
Biological Research Needs: In order to effectively manage mussel species it is necessary to work out certain life history characteristics first. Because of their unusual life-cycle and dependence on fish for completion of that cycle, it is imperative that the host species for the catspaw be ascertained. Life history studies need to be done to identify age and size at sexual maturity, recruitment success, age class structure, and other important life history parameters.

Research is needed to assess the success of watershed protection on mussel populations. Abundance and distribution of selected species need to be monitored in order to ascertain how species abundances change over time. From that we can assess what land-use changes, conservation practices, and physical/chemical parameters are correlated with, and possibly responsible for, the biological changes.

Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Dec2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2006); Cummings, K. S. (1998)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1991

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Boepple, J.F. and R.E. Coker. 1912. Mussel resources of the Holston and Clinch rivers of eastern Tennessee. Bureau of Fisheries Document 765. 13 pp.

  • Coker, R.E., A.F. Shira, H.W. Clark, and A.D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 839] 37(1919-20):77-181 + 17 pls.

  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1992. Field Guide to Freshwater Mussels of the Midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 5, Illinois. 194 pp.

  • Cummings, K.S. and J.M. Berlocher. 1990. The naiades or freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Tippecanoe River, Indiana. Malacological Review 23:83-98.

  • Evermann, B.W. and H.W. Clark. 1918. The Unionidae of Lake Maxinkukee. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 1917:251-285.

  • Heard, W.H. 1970. Eastern freshwater mollusks. 1. The south Atlantic and Gulf drainages. In: A.H. Clarke (ed.) Rare and endangered molluscs of North America. Malacologia 10:1-56.

  • Hoggarth, M.A., D.L. Rice, and D.M. Lee. 1995. Discovery of the federally endangered freshwater mussel, Epioblasma obliquata obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) (Unionidae), in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 95(4):298-299.

  • Horne, F.R. and S. McIntosh. 1979. Factors influencing distribution of mussels in the Blanco River of central Texas. The Nautilus 94(4):119-133.

  • Isom, B.G., C. Gooch, and S.D. Dennis. 1979. Rediscovery of a presumed extinct river mussel, Dysnomia sulcata (Unionidae). The Nautilus, 93(2-3): 84.

  • Johnson, R.I. 1978. Systematics and zoogeography of Plagiola (= Dysnomia = Epioblasma), an almost extinct genus of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from middle North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 148(6): 239-320.

  • Meek, S. E., and H.W. Clark. 1912. The mussels of the Big Buffalo Fork of White River, Arkansas. Report and Special Papers of the U.S. Fish Commission [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 759] 1911:1-20.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., J.T. Garner, M.F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil. 2004b. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. xii + 255 pp.

  • Morrison, J.P.E. 1942. Preliminary report on mollusks found in the shell mounds of the Pickwidk Landing basin in the Tennessee River valley. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, 129: 339-392.

  • Parmalee, P.W. 1967. The freshwater mussels of Illinois. Illinois State Museum, Popular Science Series 8:1-108.

  • Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennesee. 328 pp.

  • Simpson, C.T. 1899. The pearly fresh-water mussels of the United States; their habits, enemies, and diseases, with suggestions for their protection. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 413] 18(1898):279-288.

  • Simpson, C.T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly freshwater mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 22(1205): 501-1044.

  • Simpson, C.T. 1914. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naiades or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels. Bryant Walker: Detroit, Michigan. 1540 pp.

  • Smith, P.W. 1971. Illinois streams: A classification based on their fishes and an analysis of factors responsible for disappearance of native species. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 76:1-14.

  • Snyder, N. and H. Snyder. 1969. A comparative study of mollusk predation by Limpkins, Everglade Kites, and Boat-tailed Grackles. Eighth Annual Report of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology 8:177-223.

  • Turgeon, D.D., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, W.K. Emerson, W.G. Lyons, W.L. Pratt, C.F.E. Roper, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, and J.D. Williams. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16: viii + 277 pp., 12 pls.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990d. Purple cat's paw pearly mussel recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Atlanta, Georgia. 26 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990e. White cat's paw pearly mussel recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Twin Cities, Minnesota. 42 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Recovery plan for purple cat's paw pearlymussel (Epioblasma (=Dysnomia) obliquata obliquata (=Epioblasma sulcata sulcata)). Prepared by R.G. Biggins, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Atlanta, Georgia. 26 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2001. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; establishment of nonessential experimental population status for 16 freshwater mussels and 1 freshwater snail (Anthony's Riversnail) in the free-flowing reach of the Tennessee River below the Wilson Dam, Colbert and Lauderdale Counties, Alabama. Federal Register, 66(115): 32250-32264.

  • Watters, G.T. 1995a. A field guide to the freshwater mussels of Ohio. revised 3rd edition. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Columbus, Ohio. 122 pp.

  • Watters, G.T. and C.J.M. Flaute. 2010. Dams, zebras, and settlements: The historical loss of freshwater mussels in the Ohio River mainstem. American Malacological Bulletin 28:1-12.

  • Watters, G.T., M.A. Hoggarth, and D.H. Stansbery. 2009b. The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio. Ohio State University Press: Columbus, Ohio. 421 pp.

  • Watters, G.T., S.W. Chordas, S.H. O'Dee, and J. Reiger. 1999. Host identification studies for six species of Unionidae. Pages 75-76 in Program Guide & Abstract of the First Symposium of the Freshwater Conservation Society, 17-19 March 1999, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 92 pp.

  • Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.

  • Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, Jr., K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993b. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.

  • Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, Jr., K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993b. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9):6-22.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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