Epiglaea apiata - (Grote, 1874)
Pointed Sallow
Other English Common Names: pointed sallow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (TSN 188912)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.112196
Element Code: IILEYFL020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Other Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Noctuidae Epiglaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B83HOD01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Epiglaea apiata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Apr2017
Global Status Last Changed: 31May2002
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (20Apr2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Indiana (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S3S4), Vermont (SNR), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada New Brunswick (S4S5), Newfoundland Island (SU), Nova Scotia (S4S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (SU)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

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Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IN, MI, OH, PA, VT, WI
Canada NB, NF, NS, ON, PE

Range Map
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U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OH Portage (39133)
PA Carbon (42025), Lackawanna (42069), Luzerne (42079), Lycoming (42081), Monroe (42089), Pike (42103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lackawaxen (02040103)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+
04 Cuyahoga (04110002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A heathland (bog, pine barren etc.) where this species occurs, or has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a specimen or diagnostic photograph of an adult associated with habitat. Note habitat varies regionally but is always some kind of open heathland or open moist pineland. Captures of single adults out of habitat are not occurrences.
Mapping Guidance: In most places occurrence boundaries are easy to define using communities or other obvious vegetation features provided one has some knowledge of local habitats. Confusion may occur when a collection is made in a boggy area within a pine barren. In some parts of the range such as Maine, New Hampshire and northeastern Pennsylvania this moth is extremely common on dry pitch and jack pine barrens, but in more southern areas (such as Long Island and New Jersey) dry pitch pine-oak scrub barrens are not suitable habitat. Occurrence boundaries get harder to define in southern New Jersey where the degree, if any, that it breeds in moist pine barrens is unclear. Group Specs may be substituted if appropriate for the local habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 4 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Group Specs (pine barrens moths, bog-fen moths etc.) may be substituted if appropriate for the local habitat. Since adults are evidently fairly dispersive (based on out of habitat singletons) the suitable habitat distance should be used within edaphic situations where habitat occurs patchily separated by forest or woodland or brushland especially in and north of the Poconos. This would be especially true in fire prone areas because local populations would probably be eradicated in any but the lightest fire occurring during the adult flight season in early fall through very late the following spring (September to June in Massachusetts), but at the same time fires create at least temporary habitat. Long term persistence would likely require a metapopulation in fire prone habitats. However truly isolated populations can persist indefinitely in small bogs within otherwise unsuitable regions, e.g. in northwest New Jersey and the Ohio occurrences. When the intervening terrain is woods with Vaccinium angustifolium in the understory but sufficiently wooded that moths are not found regularly in it, a separation distance of twice the unsuitable habitat distance is suggested between occurrences. The suitable habitat distance may be violated within large sand plains (such as in Carroll County, New Hampshire) or other obvious acidic edaphic features in which the moth is known to be abundant and widespread.
Separation Justification: Dale Schweitzer is very familiar with this moth in a variety of habitats from Maine to North Carolina and these are from his observations. Habitats can vary drastically in size from about 5 to 10000 hectares or more. Smaller "bogs" may be occupied but it is not clear if these are part of larger occurrences. This species can occur in very isolated boggy wetlands of less than 10 hectares. On the other hand it can be widespread and abundant over hundreds to thousands of hectares of northern pine barrens including Pocono ridgetop barrens. In New Jersey and southward adults are taken a few kilometers out of likely habitat. This species will very reliably occupy all available habitat regardless of patch size and assuming occurrences several kilometers apart in large bog complexes, pine barrens, or other heathland settings are separate occurrences would make no sense. Still some size cap is needed. The unsuitable habitat distance is a guess and any figure would be arbitrary and would surely not prevent all gene flow if either source is large, it will provide a large degree of separation across unsuitable terrain. Again if these distances seem too large for the local setting (small discrete habitats) use Group specs appropriate for bog moths.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent is almost always the entire habitat which will usually be obvious and fairly small. Certainly in the cases of bog occurrences any other bogs within 2 kilometers of a collection site can be presumed occupied. However in the few really extensive barrens occurrences and possibly northward in boggy boreal forest occurrences are more than 5 kilometers in one or more directions, but pending better information a 2 kilometer cap is recommended.
Date: 11May2004
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.

  • Lafontaine, J.D. and B. C. Schmidt. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40:1-239.

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