Ephemera guttulata - Pictet, 1843
Eastern Green Drake
Other English Common Names: Eastern Green Drake Mayfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ephemera guttulata Pictet, 1843 (TSN 101529)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116599
Element Code: IIEPH12040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Mayflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Ephemeroptera Ephemeridae Ephemera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Purdue University Department of Entomology (W.P. McCafferty ed.) 1995. Last updated 9 July 2002. Mayfly Central- The Mayflies of North America. Online. Available: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/research/mayfly/Contents.html.
Concept Reference Code: N95PUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ephemera guttulata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Dec2003
Global Status Last Changed: 30Nov1999
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (30Nov1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NU (04May2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Maine (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (SNR), Ohio (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (SNR), West Virginia (SNR)
Canada Labrador (SU), New Brunswick (SU), Newfoundland Island (SNR), Nova Scotia (SU), Ontario (SNR), Quebec (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species was reported from a southern river site in New Hampshire (Chandler et al., 2006). In South Carolina, it occurs in Laurens, Oconee, and Pickens Cos. (McCafferty and Meyer, 2008). McCafferty (2009) documented it in Pennsylvania (Centre Co.).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, GA, KY, ME, NC, NH, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Canada LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Mayflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (including nymphs, subimago adults, and imago adults) at a given location with potentially breeding habitat. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. The families, Ameletidae, Baetidae, Caenidae, Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae, Leptohyphidae, Leptophlebiidae, and Siphlonuridae, are particularly difficult to identify from a photograph alone; geographic information in almost always an additional requirement. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults during dispersal following emergence.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are an order of insects with an immature larval stage that is entirely aquatic. Larvae usually undergo numerous molts and the length of larval existence is usually three to six months but can be as short as two weeks (some Baetidae, Leptohyphidae, and Caenidae) or as long as two years [Hexagenia limbata (Serville, 1829), in some cold climates] (Edmunds and Waltz, 1996). Following the larval molts, mayflies enter a unique life stage among living insects called the subimago. The subimago is a winged, though sexually immature stage, that is typically found perched on shoreline vegetation and lasts from four minutes to 48 hours (directly correlated with the lifespan of the adult) (Edmunds and Waltz, 1996). Females of some North American species are known to mate and lay eggs as a subimago (e.g. Tortopus, Campsurus, Ephoron, and Serratella) (Edmunds and Waltz, 1996).

The rate of mayfly dispersal is limited in the larval stage by drainage systems, and in adult stages by relatively short life spans and weak flying ability of gravid females (Berner and Pescador, 1988; McCafferty, 1998). Adults of most species live only two hours to three days (some less than 90 minutes) (Edmunds and Waltz, 1996; W.P. McCafferty, personal communication). Both subimagos and adults tend to remain along banks at emergence sites (Brittain, 1990; Knopp and Cormier, 1997). Dispersal at the population level has been little studied. At the species level, McCafferty (1998) claimed past dispersal of mayflies is reflected by both wide-ranging species resulting from diffusion dispersal (range expansion of individual species) and geographically radiating species diversity from secular migration (dispersal of a lineage via expansion with accompanying division of species ranges leading to geographic speciation) with the latter type spread over time resulting from a series of vicariant events on a small scale. Although passive dispersal (i.e. drift) is too unpredictable to consider when accurately assigning separation distances (see Stewart and Szczytko, 1983, for drift rates in m for a few species), it is worth noting that Humphries (2002) found that upstream movement in Baetis rhodani (Pictet) in the United Kingdom is sufficient to compensate for numerical losses in populations because of drift.

Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have been set at three km based upon several life history characteristics that limit occurrences to a short distance from the area of emergence, among them: (1) life cycles of adults and subimagos are extremely short compared to other aquatic insects; (2) adults (and particularly subimagos) tend to remain along the banks of emergence sites with males gathering in swarms to intercept females for mating; (3) flying ability (particularly for adult females) is not strong with dispersal rarely exceeding a few km (Malmqvist, 2000).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Chandler, D.S., G.D. Whitmore, S.K. Burian, and J.F. Burger. 2006. The mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of New Hampshire: seasonality and diversity of the stream fauna. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 132(1-2): 25-73.

  • McCafferty, W.P. 2009. New state and provincial North American records for 100 Ephemeroptera species. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 135(3):352-368.

  • McCafferty, W.P. and M.D. Meyer. 2008. South Carolina mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 134(3-4):283-335.

  • Myers, L. W., B. C. Kondratieff, T. B. Mihuc, and D. E. Ruiter. 2011. The Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), Stoneflies (Plecoptera), and Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Adirondack Park (New York State). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 137 (1 and 2): 63-140.

  • Purdue University Department of Entomology (W.P. McCafferty ed.) 1995. Last updated 9 July 2002. Mayfly Central- The Mayflies of North America. Online. Available: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/research/mayfly/Contents.html.

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