Enneacanthus gloriosus - (Holbrook, 1855)
Bluespotted Sunfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Enneacanthus gloriosus (Holbrook, 1855) (TSN 168113)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102329
Element Code: AFCQB10020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Sunfishes and Freshwater Basses
Image 93

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Centrarchidae Enneacanthus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Enneacanthus gloriosus
Taxonomic Comments: Current data indicate that E. gloriosus and E. obesus are not monophyletic taxa and appear to demonstrate either incomplete lineage sorting or a polyphyletic E. obesus; further study is warranted (Darden 2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Maryland (S3S4), Mississippi (S3), New Jersey (S4), New York (S3), North Carolina (S5), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The native range includes coastal lowlands (Coastal Plain and lower and middle Piedmont) from extreme southern New York (lower Hudson River drainage) south to southern and extreme western Florida, lower Tombigbee River (Alabama), and Biloxi Bay system of Mississippi (Lee et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Ross 2001). Introduced and established in small parts of the Finger Lakes drainage in New York (Werner, Copeia 1972:878-879; Smith 1985) and in the lower Mississippi River basin in Mississippi (Ross 2001).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see maps in Lee et al. 1980, Menhinick 1991, and Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000. This fish is common to uncommon in different parts of its range (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The native range includes coastal lowlands (Coastal Plain and lower and middle Piedmont) from extreme southern New York (lower Hudson River drainage) south to southern and extreme western Florida, lower Tombigbee River (Alabama), and Biloxi Bay system of Mississippi (Lee et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Ross 2001). Introduced and established in small parts of the Finger Lakes drainage in New York (Werner, Copeia 1972:878-879; Smith 1985) and in the lower Mississippi River basin in Mississippi (Ross 2001).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, SC, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MS George (28039), Hancock (28045), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Warren (28149)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Bald Eagle (02050204), Lower Juniata (02050304), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Wateree (03050104), Lower Broad (03050106), Enoree (03050108), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Middle Savannah (03060106), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Sarasota Bay (03100201), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Lower Flint (03130008), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Escambia (03140305), Lower Alabama (03150204), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
08 Lower Big Black (08060202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Multiple batch spawner (Snyder and Peterson 1999). Spawning season extended from at least July to early September in New Jersey, May-June in Potomac River in Virginia, April-September in Mississippi (Snyder and Peterson 1999); gravid females April-October in Florida. Size and age at maturity varies geographically (Snyder and Peterson 1999).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species is common over sand or mud in pools and backwaters of heavily vegetated sluggish creeks and medium-sized rivers, and similar situations in ponds, lakes, and small impoundments (Lee et al. 1980, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); in some areas it inhabits moderate-gradient headwaters with pools and runs and cover consisting of submerged plants or tree roots (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Habitat includes slightly brackish waters along the coast, but this fish is more numerous tidal and nontidal freshwater habitats. Eggs are laid on the bottom or among plants in a solitary nest made by the male in a small territory (Cooper 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: A few studies indicate that microcrustaceans and midge larvae are important foods, with various other invertebrates sometimes also eaten (Cooper 1983).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Sunfishes (Centrarchids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Although members of this group vary in size and probably in typical movement distances, it is likely that even the smallest centrarchids occasionally disperse as far as do large centrarchids. Hence a single separation distance is used for all members of the family. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Note that some species some species may at time be hard to detect. For example, nowhere is the Carolina pygmy sunfish known to be abundant. In addition, it is essentially an annual species, with adults dying soon after spawning, at an age of 12-15 months. In addition, young are so small that, for a several months, documentation of the species' presence at a particular locality might be almost impossible, at least without preserving specimens. Therefore, negative data at a known locality should be carefully interpreted (P. Shute).
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Jun2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Breder, C.M., Jr. and A.C. Redmond. 1929. The bluespotted sunfish: a contribution to the life history and habits of Enneacanthus with notes on other Lepominae. Zoologica 9(10): 379-401.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Daniels, R. No date. Printout of fish captures at Sterling Forest State Park recorded as part of a New York State Museum Inventory of Sterling Forest.

  • Darden, T. L. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography within the Enneacanthus sunfishes (Perciformes: Centrarchidae). Copeia 2008:630-636.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ross, S. T. (with W. M. Brennaman, W. T. Slack, M. T. O'Connell, and T. L. Peterson). 2001a. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi: Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Snyder, D. J., and M. S. Peterson. 1999. Life history of a peripheral population of bluespotted sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus (Holbrook), with comments on geographic variation. American Midland Naturalist 141:345-357.

  • Werner, R.G. 1972. Bluespotted sunfish, Enneacanthus gloriosus, in Lake Ontario drainage. Copeia (4):878-879.

  • Werner, R.G. 1972. Bluespotted sunfish, Enneacanthus gloriosus, in Lake Ontario drainage. Copeia (4):878-879.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Loftus, W.F. and Kushlan, J.A. 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 31(4): 147-344.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

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