Enallagma laterale - Morse, 1895
New England Bluet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Enallagma laterale Morse, 1895 (TSN 102130)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.119713
Element Code: IIODO71020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Dragonflies and Damselflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Odonata Coenagrionidae Enallagma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
Concept Reference Code: A99PAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Enallagma laterale
Taxonomic Comments: This genus is in need of thorough taxonomic and phylogenetic study; some of the subgroups may deserve taxonomic recognition (Westfall and May, 1996). Most of the species concepts including this one seem stable.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Jan2006
Global Status Last Changed: 17Oct2005
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Approximately 100 extant populations known but specialized and sometimes small habitats, some subject to future development and pollution. Many or most populations isolated. Very likely more populations will be found.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4 (23Jan2006)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S3S4), Maine (S3), Massachusetts (S3S4), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (S3), New York (S3), Pennsylvania (S1S2), Rhode Island (S4), Vermont (S1)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Found southwestern, eastern interior, and coastal Maine, southeastern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, southeastern New York, eastern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Estimated extant: ME (known from 25 sites) (Butler et al., 2005); NH 1-2; MA 30+; NY 10; PA 1-3; RI 15-20 (possibly more than 20 in RI); NJ 1-3.

Population Size: 2500 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Probably no more than 200 adults at any time in most populations which implies somewhat more than that per generation. However, some populations may number much higher. So probably less than 200 x 100 = 20,000. Alsmost certainly more than 5000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Except for exemplary EOs, other sites are believed privately owned. Several RI and MA sites are under state ownership, so at least protected from development.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: For unknown reasons, occurs in only certain freshwater lentic habitats of the larger # apparently suitable for it.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: One of the most specialized lacustrine damselflies in the northeast with respect to aquatic, microhabitat preferences and sensitivity to disturbance (Butler et al., 2005). This species is habitat sensitive requiring high floating plant richness, narrow emergent zone width, low tolerance to disturbance, and fine substrates (Butler and deMaynadier, 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventory all historic populations. Determine status of existing populations.

Protection Needs: Protect populations thru acquisition, easement, and registry.

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Found southwestern, eastern interior, and coastal Maine, southeastern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, southeastern New York, eastern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Barnstable (25001), Bristol (25005), Essex (25009), Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Plymouth (25023), Worcester (25027)
NH Carroll (33003), Hillsborough (33011)
NJ Bergen (34003), Morris (34027), Passaic (34031), Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
NY Orange (36071), Rockland (36087), Suffolk (36103), Westchester (36119)
PA Luzerne (42079), Sullivan (42113)
RI Kent (44003), Washington (44009)
VT Rutland (50021), Windham (50025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070002)+, Nashua (01070004)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Miller (01080202)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+
04 Mettawee River (04150401)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Damselfly, Coenagrionidae.
General Description: Adult male a small blue damselfly with abdominal segments 6-7 and 10 black. Female brown with abdomen all black dorsally. Description of larva unpublished, but see Carle (1993) report for partial key and description.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Male cerci forked with both branches short and blunt. Female has a pair of posterior lateral pits on the middle lobe of the prothorax, and the black shoulder stripe is narrower than the pale shoulder stripe. (Gibbs, 1955; Needham & Heywood, 1929). The following combination of characters will separate the larva from most or all others within the range: 1) body uniformly light brown, 2) abdomen lacks lateral spines, 3) caudal gills rounded apically, 4) spinose ventral border of lateral gills relatively long. See Carle (1993) for more details.
Reproduction Comments: First sightings in Rhode Island May 28 (Briggs, 1993).
Ecology Comments: Habitat is lakes and ponds with boggy margins.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Not highly dispersive, most adults probably never fly more than 30 meters from habitat.
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Occurs in widely-separated ponds or small lakes in boggy surroundings. The eggs are laid in BRASENIA SCHREBERI and possibly a few other aquatic plants, larvae cling to submerged plants, adults forage in fields, roadsides, forest openings within 30 meters of ponds as well as along edges of ponds.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Larvae overwinter, flight season early May to mid July.
Length: 2.5 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Pond-Breeding Odonates

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: Adults odonates are known to wander, some over great distances (not so for damselflies). Mass migration over great distances is not herein considered when drafting separation distances as such behavior is limited to few species (e.g. Anax junius, Libellula quadrimaculata, other Libellula spp., Sympetrum spp.), occurs unpredictably and infrequently (10 year cycles for L. quadrimaculata), are unidirectional or intergenerational (Freeland et al., 2003), or occurs under unusual circumstances such as irritation by trematode parasites (Dumont and Hinnekint, 1973) or major weather events (Moskowitz et al., 2001; Russell et al., 1998).

Corbet (1999) estimated average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Pond-breeding odonates may wander but generally stay within a few km of their emergence pond. At the species level, overall range (and dispsersal capability) tends to be larger than for lotic species possibly in response to greater instability of lentic versus lotic habitat over time (Hof et al., 2006). Distribution is often limited in response to presence or absence of predators (also dependent on habitat permanence) (McPeek, 1989; Stoks and McPeek, 2003a; 2003b). At night and during inclement weather, adult Procordulia grayi roosted at least one km away from the reproductive site (Rowe, 1987). Conrad et al. (1999) listed maximum dispersal distance of Sympetrum sanguieneum at 1.2 km but at 800 m or less with high dispersal rate between ponds for other species (Ischnura elegans, Coenagrion puella, C. pulchellum, Lestes sponsa, Enallagma cyathigerum, and Pyrrhosoma nymphalis). Michiels and Dhondt (1991) cited dispersal distance of Sympetrum donae in Belgium at greater than 1.75 km and most mature adults immigrated away from the emergence site. Moore (1986) cited several species of Enallagma as dispersing 2.7 km and found no colonization of artificial acid water ponds in eastern England constructed at least 5 km from colonized natural ponds in 12 consecutive years (single introduced population of Ceriagrion tenellum not surviving past the second generation). Purse et al. (2003) found mature adults of the rare European damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, had a low rate of movement within continuous habitat (< 25 m), low emigration rates (1.3 to 11.4%), and low colonization distances (max. 1 km), comparable to other similarly sized coenagrionids.

Even within genera, however, differences in dispersal patterns may exist. McPeek (1989) found the mechanisms causing Enallagma movements between Michigan lakes were due to propensity to leave natal lakes, not active selection of different habitats (e.g. lakes with fish, without fish, or winterkill lakes with fish part-year). With the exception of winterkill lake species (Enallagma ebrium), species in lakes with fish (E. geminatum, E. hageni) and fishless lake species (E. boreale, E. cyathigerum), moved little or not at all away from natal lakes; even those less than 10 m apart. Natural selection may favor remaining at natal lakes where ecological conditions are constant and dispersal costs (i.e. mortality) high (McPeek, 1989). Uncharacteristic movement of E. ebrium away from natal lakes is explained by recolonization of lakes in which populations have been reduced or eliminated and reproducing when winterkill of fish populations changes a lake to the fishless condition.

Considering the above tendency for pond breeding odonates to remain at or near (order of hundreds of meters) natal emergence sites, separation distance has been set at 3 km.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The few studies determining area of adult foraging habitat surrounding breeding sites have indicated a range of 30 meters to 300 meters [see Briggs (1993) for Enallagma laterale; Corbet (1999) for Nesciothemis nigeriensis and Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; Beukeman (2002) for Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; and Samways and Steytler (1996) for Chorolestes tessalatus]. As a result, an element occurrence should include the breeding site and surrounding pond or upland habitat extending 500 m in a radius from the breeding site.
Date: 12Feb2007
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Oct2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2005); Shiffer, C.N., G. Carpenter (2000), Schweitzer, D.F.(2006)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Barlow, A.E., D.M. Golden, and J. Bangma. 2009. Field Guide to Dragonflies and Damselflies of New Jersey. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Fish and Wildlife: Flemington, New Jersey. 285 pp.

  • Barlow, Allen E. 1997-03-18. Electronic mail to Rick Dutko of the New Jersey Natural Heritage Program regarding suggestions for State ranks of selected Odonata species.

  • Blust, M., and B. Pfeiffer. 2015. The Odonata of Vermont. Bulletin of American Odonatology 11(3?4):69-119.

  • Briggs, N. 1993. Habitat use by the lateral bluet damselfly, Enallagma laterale, and the barrens bluet damselfly, Enallagma recurvatum, on seven coastal plain ponds in southern Rhode Island: implications for monitoring and preserve design. Unpublished report to the Nature Conservancy, March 19, 1993. 14 pp.

  • Butler, R.G. and P.G. deMaynadier. 2008. The significance of littoral and shoreline habitat integrity to the conservation of lacustrine damselflies (Odonata). Journal of Insect Conservation, 12: 23-36.

  • Butler, R.G., P.G. deMaynadier, M. Tomlinson, H. Robbins, P. Long, and A. Marenberg. 2005. Northeast range extension and observations of atypical 'Sash' of Enallagma laterale (New England bluet) in Maine. Argia 17(3): 23-25.

  • Carle, F. L. 1993. Systematic and Life History Research on the Lateral Bluet (ENALLAGMA LATERALE) at Lake Denmark, Picatinny Arsenal. Unpublished Final Research Report completed under contract with New Jersey Nature Conservancy.

  • Carpenter, V. 1991. Dragonflies and damselflies of Cape Cod. Cape Cod Museum of Natural History. Brewster, MA. 79 pp.

  • Carpenter, V. A. 1990. An ecological and behavioral study of the barrens bluet damselfly (Enallagma recurvatum) including results of general odonate inventories, 1990. Unpublished report for the Massachusetts Natural Heritage Program. 43 pp.

  • Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning Commission, Protected Lands Council. 2003. Ecological principles for management and stewardship for the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. Pages 21-28 (Freshwater Wetlands Section).

  • Donnelly, T. W. 1992. The odonata of New York State. Bulletin of American Odonatology. 1(1):1-27.

  • Donnelly, T.W. 1999. The Dragonflies and Damselflies of New York. Prepared for the 1999 International Congress of Odonatology and 1st Symposium of the Worldwide Dragonfly Association. July 11-16, 1999. Colgate University, Hamilton, New York: 39 pp.

  • Genoways, H.H. & BRENNER, F.J., EDITORS. 1985. SPECIES OF SPECIAL CONCERN IN PENNSYLVANIA. CARNEGIE MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, PITTSBURGH. SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 11. 430 PP.

  • Gibbs, R.H. 1955. The females of ENALLAGMA LATERALE Morse and RECURVATUM Davis (Odonata:Coenagrionidae). Psyche 62(1). pp. 10-18.

  • Hunt, P.D. 2012. The New Hampshire Dragonfly Survey: A Final Report. Report to the NH Fish and Game Department. Audubon Society of NH, Concord. 54 pp.

  • Lam, E. 2004. Damselflies of the northeast: A guide to the species of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Biodiversity Books, Forest Hills, New York. 96 pp.

  • May, Michael L. 1992-06-05. "New Jersey Specimen Records" for Odonata.

  • May, Michael L. and Frank L. Carle. 1996-10-15. An annotated list of the Odonata of New Jersey. With an appendix on nomenclature in the Genus Gomphus. Bulletin of American Odonatology Vol. 4, No. 1 p. 1-35.

  • Needham, J.G., and H.B. Heywood. 1929. A handbook of the dragonflies of North America. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 378 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2005. Biotics Database. Albany, NY.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2014. Database of odonate records by county for northeastern U.S. states. Data contributors available: http://nynhp.org/OdonataNE.

  • Nikula, B., J.L. Loose, and M.R. Burne. 2003. A field guide to the dragonflies and damselflies of Massachusetts. Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Westborough, MA. 197 pp.

  • Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2016. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009; updated February 2011, February 2012, and October 2016. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist.pdf

  • Perkins, P. D. 1983. North American insect status review. Contract 14-16-0009-79-052. Final report to Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. 354 pp.

  • Soltesz, Ken. 1992. Proposed Heritage ranks for New York State odonata. Unpublished report for New York Natural Heritage Program. 37 pp.

  • Soltesz, Ken. 1999. Handwritten comments/response to Rick Dutko, NJ Natural Heritage Program, request to review proposed Odonata ranks.

  • Westfall, M.J. Jr. and M.L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, FL. 649 pp.

  • White, E.L., P.D Hunt, M.D. Schlesinger, J.D. Corser, and P.G. deMaynadier. 2015. Prioritizing Odonata for conservation action in the northeastern USA. Freshwater Science 34(3):1079-1093.

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