Empetrichthys merriami - Gilbert, 1893
Ash Meadows Poolfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Empetrichthys merriami Gilbert, 1893 (TSN 165692)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106037
Element Code: AFCNB03020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Goodeidae Empetrichthys
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Empetrichthys merriami
Taxonomic Comments: The species of Crenichthys and Empetrichthys were removed from the family Cyprinodontidae (order Atheriniformes) and placed in the family Goodeidae (order Cyprinodontiformes) by Parenti (1986). Crenichthys and Empetrichthys were assigned to the family Empetrichthyidae by Miller and Smith (1986). The 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) retained these genera in the Cyprinodontidae, pending confirmatory evidence for change based on additional character suites. MtDNA data of Grant and Riddle (1995) indicate that the phylogenetic affinity of Crenichthys and Empetrichthys is with the family Goodeidae rather than with the representative fundulines, poeciliids, or cyprinodontines.

Formerly known as the Ash Meadows killifish.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GX
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: GX - Presumed Extinct
Reasons: Historically occurred in five springs at Ash Meadows, Nevada; extinct in late 1940s or early 1950s, apparently as a result of habitat alterations and predation from exotic bullfrogs and crayfish.
Nation: United States
National Status: NX (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Nevada (SX)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: EX - Extinct
American Fisheries Society Status: Extinct (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: Zero (no occurrences believed extant)
Range Extent Comments: Range included Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada, near the Nevada/California border. This species was known only from five separated springs (Lee et al. 1980).

Area of Occupancy: 0 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 0 (zero)
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is extinct. Formerly it occurred in 5 springs in Nevada (Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: Zero, no individuals known extant

Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species went extinct in the late 1940s or early 1950s as a result of severe habitat alterations, possibly exacerbated by predation from exotic bullfrogs and crayfish (Miller et al. 1989).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (Zero (no occurrences believed extant)) Range included Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada, near the Nevada/California border. This species was known only from five separated springs (Lee et al. 1980).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NVextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Nye (32023)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Upper Amargosa (18090202)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (poolfish).
Ecology Comments: Little information reported (Lee et al. 1980). Occurred historically with CYPRINODON NEVADENSIS MIONECTES and RHINICHTHYS OSCULUS NEVADENSIS.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Habitat Comments: This fish inhabited deeper holes in springs (La Rivers 1962).
Food Comments: Apparently omnivorous, based on an examination of a single stomach, the structure of the teeth, and the length of the intestines (La Rivers 1962).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: None.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Killifishes (Cyprinodontids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Each spring system that is undivided by a barrier constitutes a single distinct occurrence. Otherwise, use a separation distance of 10 km for any type of aquatic habitat.
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Nov2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Grant, E. C., and B. R. Riddle. 1995. Are the endangered springfish (Crenichthys Hubbs) and poolfish (Empetrichthys Gilbert) fundulines or goodeids?: a mitochondrial DNA assessment. Copeia 1995:209-212.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and Fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Fish and Game Commission, Carson City, Nevada. 782 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Miller, R. R., J. D. Williams, and J. E. Williams. 1989. Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6):22-38.

  • Miller, R.R., and M.L. Smith. 1986. Origin and geography of fishes on central Mexico. Pages 487-517 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, editors. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. xiii + 866 pp.

  • Minckley, W. L., G. K. Meffe, and D. L. Soltz. 1991a. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. Pages 247-82 in W. L. Minckley and J. E. Deacon (editors). Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parenti, L. R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei, Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 168:335-557.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

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