Eleocharis olivacea - Torr.
Capitate Spikerush
Other English Common Names: Bright-green Spikerush
Other Common Names: bright green spikerush
Synonym(s): Eleocharis flavescens var. olivacea (Torr.) Gleason
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Eleocharis olivacea Torr. (TSN 40018)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147970
Element Code: PMCYP091A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Eleocharis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eleocharis olivacea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 24Apr1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Eleocharis olivacea is very abundant in its preferred habitats, especially along the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It is vulnerable to loss of its wetland habitats, however, and may be of future concern.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (02Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SNR), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S1), Kentucky (SNR), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S2), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada New Brunswick (S1), Nova Scotia (S2S3), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: E. olivacea occurs along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Nova Scotia south to Florida. It occurs locally inland from Maine west to Minnesota, south to Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size Comments: Because this species spreads vegetatively via rhizome, it may be difficult to distinguish genetic individuals (genets) from one another to make an accurate estimate of abundance.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat to this species is destruction of wetland habitats through logging, development or suppression of the natural fluctuations in water level of ponds and lakes. Also threatening is successional overgrowth by woody species.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining because of habitat loss.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to loss of habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: E. olivacea occurs along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Nova Scotia south to Florida. It occurs locally inland from Maine west to Minnesota, south to Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TX, VA, VT, WI, WY
Canada NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Mobile (01097)*
AR Hempstead (05057), Union (05139)
IA Johnson (19103)*
IL Cook (17031), Lake (17097)*
MN Aitkin (27001), Becker (27005), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029)*, Itasca (27061), Lake (27075), Morrison (27097), Pine (27115), St. Louis (27137), Todd (27153)*
NJ Atlantic (34001), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Cumberland (34011)*
PA Bucks (42017), Carbon (42025), Erie (42049), Lackawanna (42069), Lehigh (42077)*, Luzerne (42079), Monroe (42089), Pike (42103), Sullivan (42113), Susquehanna (42115), Wayne (42127), Wyoming (42131)
VT Addison (50001), Caledonia (50005), Essex (50009), Rutland (50021)*, Windham (50025)
WI Adams (55001)*, Florence (55037), Forest (55041), Marinette (55075), Marquette (55077)*, Oconto (55083), Oneida (55085), Ozaukee (55089)*, Vilas (55125)*, Walworth (55127)*, Waukesha (55133)*, Waupaca (55135)*, Waushara (55137)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
02 Upper Delaware (02040101)+, Lackawaxen (02040103)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+
03 Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+*, Mobile Bay (03160205)+*, Escatawpa (03170008)+*
04 St. Louis (04010201)+, Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)+, Oconto (04030104)+, Peshtigo (04030105)+, Brule (04030106)+, Menominee (04030108)+, Upper Fox (04030201)+*, Wolf (04030202)+*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, Pike-Root (04040002)+*, Milwaukee (04040003)+*, Lake Michigan (04060200)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+*, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+*
05 French (05010004)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Long Prairie (07010108)+*, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Flambeau (07050002)+*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Chicago (07120003)+*, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+*
08 Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201)+
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+
11 Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Capitate spike-rush; Sedge family, Cyperaceae. A herbaceous perennial (monocot), tufted from a short rootstalk. Stems 3-15 cm tall and erect or submergent, depending on water level.
Habitat Comments: The preferred habitats of Eleocharis olivacea are wetlands along the Atlantic Coastal Plain. This species also occurs inland along shorelines, at the margins of ponds and bogs, and (especially in the southeastern U.S.) at the headwaters of blackwater streams.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Apr1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Crowley, K. (MRO).
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cieminski, K. L.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabe, M. Dumais, and S. Hay. 1983. The rare vascular plants of Quebec. National Museums Canada, Syllogeus 48, Ottawa. 75 pp.

  • Bowles, M.L., et al. 1991. Rarely seen endangered plants, rediscoveries, and species new to Illinois. Erigenia 11:27-51.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 473 pp.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 473 pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second Edition. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 712 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2 volumes. Second Edition. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. and D.J. Drapalik. 1962. The Cyperaceae of Illinois. 2. DULICHIUM, 3. ELEOCHARIS. Amer. Midl. Nat. 67:398-423.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H., J.E. Ozment and G.W. Folkerts. 1962. Additions to the flora of Illinois. Rhodora 64:356-358.

  • SCHUYLER, A.E. AND W.E. FERREN. 1975. A NEW INTERTIDAL FORM OF ELEOCHARIS OLIVACEA (CYPERACEAE). BARTONIA 43:46-48.

  • Schuyler, A. E. 1977. Chromosome observations on some eastern North American Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). Brittonia 29:129-133.

  • Smith, G. S., J. J. Bruhl, M. S. González-Elizondo, and F. J. Menapace. 2002. Eleocharis. Pages 60-120 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 23. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Smith, S. G., J. J. Bruhl, M. S. González-Elizondo, and F. J. Menapace.  2002.  Eleocharis.  Pages 60-120 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors.  Flora of North America north of Mexico.  Volume 23.  Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Svenson, H.K. 1929. Monographic studies in the genus ELEOCHARIS. Contributios from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University--No. LXXXVI. Rhodora 31:121-135, 152-163, 167-191, 199-219, 224-242.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

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