Echinocereus chisoensis - W.T. Marsh.
Chisos Mountain Hedgehog Cactus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Echinocereus chisoensis W.T. Marsh. (TSN 502201) ;Echinocereus chisosensis (TSN 195381)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141351
Element Code: PDCAC060G0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Echinocereus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Echinocereus chisoensis
Taxonomic Comments: Only the species-level entry Echinocereus chisoensis appears in the 1994 and 1999 Kartesz lists for North America north of Mexico. These lists do not mention typical varieties when only the typical variety occurs within the geographical territory of his checklist, and since only Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis is known to occur in the U.S. (confirmed by John Kartesz to Larry Morse 25Nov99), only the species is listed in the synthesis. The U.S. FWS has designated threatened status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act on E. chisoensis var. chisoensis only. Jackie Poole mentioned an additional variety of E. chisoensis occurring in Mexico, E. chisoensis var. fobeanus (pers. comm. to M. Martinez, July/94, Poole et al. 2007, Anderson 2001). Spelling is Echinocereus chisosensis in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003), and it is evident that Flora North America does not recognize varieties of E. chisosensis as they mention the 'fobeanus' as a species, Echinocereus foebeanus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Aug2008
Global Status Last Changed: 20Mar1989
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This species has 2 varieties, each with an extremely limited distribution: var. chisoensis is restricted to a very small area on the southeastern side of Big Bend National Park in extreme southwestern Texas; var. fobeanus is known only from the border region of southwestern Coahuila and eastern Durango, Mexico. The two varieties of this species are both rare. There are several threats to this species including herbivory in dry years, which are often in the desert, which then reduces the number of flowers and fruits available, and which then may attract fewer pollinators to this obligate outcrosser. Collection pressure is thought to be a threat, but is probably minor.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis is listed Threatened so the species has partial status.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: It occurs in the Chihuahuan Desert in Texas and Mexico.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Little is known about the variety fobeanus, including possible threats, other than it occurs in a few locations in Mexico. Threats to variety chisoensis include herbivory by jackrabbits and rodents during dry years that eat flowers and fruits which then affects reproductive output. Cactus moth also have a negative affect on the typical variety. Further, small population size is problematic for this species since it's an obligate outcrosser, and small populations may not attract the native bees that are necessary to pollinate the flowers. Dry years also negatively affect the bee populations, so dry years have a cascade of negative effects on this species (pers. comm. J. Poole).

There is minor collection pressure from cactus collectors, at least on variety chisoensis. Road construction in at least one case caused plants to be dug up and sent to the Desert Botanical Gardens for seed storage. Buffelgrass is also a threat, although the Park Service may be controlling it (pers. comm. J. Poole).

Finally, a reintroduction of this species is taking place in Texas, however, few details are available (pers. comm. J. Poole).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: It occurs in the Chihuahuan Desert in Texas and Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Mexico

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Brewster (48043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Big Bend (13040205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A spiny succulent with solitary or branched stems, 5-25 cm tall. (Stems are constricted between the annual sections in var. fobeanus.) Flowers are funnel-shaped; mostly pink-magenta in color.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: It grows in desert grasslands and open shrublands on unconsolidated gravelly fan and terrace deposits at moderate elevations (600-760 m).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Aug2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: J. Poole & K. Maybury (1996), rev. L. Oliver (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anderson, E. F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 760 pp.

  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Heil, K.D., S. Brack, and J.M. Porter. 1985. The rare and sensitive cacti of Big Bend National Park. Report prepared for Big Bend National Park, Texas. 41 pp.

  • Heil, K.D., and E.F. Anderson. 1982. Status report [on Echinocereus chisoensis]. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A & M University Press. College Station, Texas. 640 pp.

  • Poole, J.M., and D.H. Riskind. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Dep't., Austin. Looseleaf binder, no pagination.

  • Taylor, N.P. 1985. The genus Echinocereus. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 160 pp.

  • Weniger, D. 1984. Cacti of Texas and neighboring states: a field guide. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 356 pp.

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