Echinacea tennesseensis - (Beadle) Small
Tennessee Coneflower
Other English Common Names: Tennessee Purple Coneflower
Other Common Names: Tennessee purple coneflower
Synonym(s): Echinacea angustifolia var. tennesseensis (Beadle) Blake
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Echinacea tennesseensis (Beadle) Small (TSN 37284)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159601
Element Code: PDAST38090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Echinacea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Echinacea tennesseensis
Taxonomic Comments: Generally accepted (e.g., Kartesz 1994 and 1999 and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service); has also been treated as a variety of Echinacea angustifolia.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Feb2000
Global Status Last Changed: 28Mar1997
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Five extant populations endemic to the limestone cedar glades of the Central Basin of Tennessee. This limited, specialized habitat is threatened by rapid residential development of the area. Fire suppression has also restricted the spread of populations. On the other hand, the species has been successfully reintroduced in its native habitat and seems stable and possibly increasing.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: As of August 3, 2011, Endangered status was removed from Echinacea tennesseensis since it is considered to be recovered (Federal Register 76(149): 46632-46650).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to middle Tennessee limestone cedar glades; found only in three counties. Presumed extinct by McGregor (1968).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Five known native populations. Federally endangered.

Population Size Comments: Population at Cedars of Lebanon State Forest may contain 1000 plants; three other sites each contain 100-300.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat is easily adapted for house sites; often disturbed.

Short-term Trend Comments: Stable to increasing. This species has been successfully propagated in its native habitat and may soon be ready for down listing to threatened status (A. Shea, pers. comm. 1998).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Can survive some disturbance as long as habitat is not destroyed; the long taproot is important to its survival.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to middle Tennessee limestone cedar glades; found only in three counties. Presumed extinct by McGregor (1968).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TN Davidson (47037), Marshall (47117), Rutherford (47149), Wilson (47189)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Stones (05130203)+
06 Upper Duck (06040002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb from a thick, branched rhizome; with a basal rosette of leaves giving rise to a stem 1-4dm tall, topped with a flower. Mature individuals usually found in clumps. Plant produces a showy flower head in years of adequate growing season rainfall. Heads usually appear from mid-June to September and have spiny brown-purple disk flowers surrounded by bright, pink-purple rays. Fruit a gray-brown, oblong-triangular achene with a crownlike pappus.
Technical Description: A perennial herb, 1-4 dm tall, that produces a showy flower head in years of adequate growing season rainfall. Heads usually appear from mid-June to September and have spiny brown-purple disk flowers surrounded by bright, pink-purple rays. Plant a perennial herb from a thick, branched rhizome, a basal rosette of leaves giving rise to a stem 9-13 inches tall, topped with a flower; mature individuals usually found in clumps. Stem round with low ridges and rough, spreading hairs. Leaves hairy on both surfaces, margins entire, arranged both in a basal rosette and alternate on the stem. Rosette leaves with long stalks, linear- elliptic to linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, up to 10-12 inches long; stem leaves becoming linear, sessile, and greatly reduced in size, then absent. The flowers grouped in a single head at the end of the stem. Rays 8-10, bright pinkish-purple, 1-1.2 inches long, linear-oblong, typically horizontal or arching up toward the center. Disc is dark purplish-brown. Fruit a gray-brown, oblong- triangular achene with a crownlike pappus.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Its rays are the most distinguishing feature; they are horizontally spreading to flexed forward, rather than being reflexed as in other coneflowers. E. tennesseensis resembles the Pale-purple coneflower E. pallida, and also the Purple coneflower E. purpurea. E. pallida is a taller plant on average, growing 4-40 inches high, and its rays are longer, 1.6-3.6 inches, droopy, and sometimes paler. E. purpurea has broadly lanceolate leaves which are finely toothed rather than smooth-margined and a more leafy stem with much shorter hairs, feeling scabby rather than rough- hairy.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Barrens
Habitat Comments: Most frequently found in open limestone cedar glades. Sometimes found on calcareous barrens, which have deeper soils than glades, but it is generally outcompeted/shaded out in areas with deeper soils.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Feb2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. McKeown (1999)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cronquist, A. 1980. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 1. Asteraceae. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 261 pp.

  • Currie, R.R., and P. Somers. 1989. Tennessee coneflower recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

  • Drew, M.B., and E.E.C. Clebsch. 1995. Studies on the endangered Echinacea tennesseensis (Asteraceae): plant community and demographic analysis. Castanea 60(1): 60-69.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983a. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, Atlanta, GA. Vol. 1: 718 pp.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • McGregor, R.L. 1968. The taxonomy of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48(4): 113-142.

  • McKeown, K.A. 1999. A review of the taxonomy of the genus Echinacea. Pages 482-489 in: J. Janick (ed.). Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

  • Pyne, M., M. Gay, and A. Shea. 1995. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 5. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

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