Echinacea pallida - (Nutt.) Nutt.
Pale Purple Coneflower
Other Common Names: pale purple coneflower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. (TSN 37279)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141782
Element Code: PDAST38040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Echinacea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Echinacea pallida
Taxonomic Comments: Generally accepted (e.g., Kartesz, 1994 and 1999). Described in monograph by R. L. McGregor (1968). A common misconception is that the rays of E. pallida are always pale; rays can be a dark pink hue. This species can be difficult to distinguish from E. simulata, with which it intergrades to the east of its range, and from E. sanguinea to its south (See McKeown, K., 1999).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Feb2000
Global Status Last Changed: 27Feb2000
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Although still fairly abundant in parts of its range in the Great Plains and southern states, Echinacea pallida exhibits a declining trend over the past 30 years. It is threatened by root digging and excessive seed collection, as well as by impacts from road maintenance activities and urbanization in general.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: NU (24Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNA), Georgia (S1?), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNA), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (SNA), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1), New York (SNA), North Carolina (S1), Oklahoma (SNR), Rhode Island (SNA), Tennessee (S1), Texas (SNR), Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (S3)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Medium) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Northeastern Texas to Kansas, east to Iowa, Illinois, through central and western Missouri and Arkansas. Irregular east of the Mississippi River. Established as an exotic in several Eastern states (cf. Fernald, 1950).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Historically abundant, widespread and secure in the central Great Plains; uncommon and probably introduced in the East. Considered native and rare in Tennessee. At present, becoming less common in Kansas. Common in the central and western portions of Missouri, some in Arkansas. Still fairly abundant in Oklahoma.

Population Size Comments: E. pallida was once widespread in Kansas and is still fairly common in Oklahoma and Missouri. Some abundant populations still exist.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Human actual threat: root digging and excessive seed collection. State conservation laws, such as in Missouri, have had some, though not complete, success as deterrents. In Oklahoma, root digging has been a problem in the northeast corner of the state, and has the potential to expand. Other actual human threats include mowing, application of herbicide, road expansion, construction, urbanization in general.

Short-term Trend Comments: Declining. Heavily harvested for the last two decades. Entire populations have been extirpated by root digging in Kansas, according to Ronald McGregor, the original monographer, who has observed the decline over the past 30 years (McGregor, pers. commun., 1997). Specific instances of digging include the taking of an estimated 90% of the roots of a roadside population of about 300 individuals located outside of Aurora, Missouri, in 1997 (K. McKeown, pers. obs. 1997). However, a state law prohibiting roadside digging of wildflowers has now reduced the threat of root harvesting in Missouri (T. Smith, pers. comm. 2010). Commercial seed collection is also evident. Most or all of the seed heads were collected from 5 populations ranging in size from 10 to 100 individuals (Rank C) along I44 and SR65 in Missouri in 1997 (K. McKeown, pers. obs. 1997), even though such seed collections are illegal in that state. Also note that Doug Zollner of the Arkansas TNC office in Little Rock, reported an organized digging operation (4 workers, 1 supervisor and a pickup truck) at a TNC site in the southeastern corner of Arkansas in 1998. A population of about 100 individuals was destroyed during road widening in Baxter Springs, Kansas, in 1997 (K. McKeown, pers. obs. 1997).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Northeastern Texas to Kansas, east to Iowa, Illinois, through central and western Missouri and Arkansas. Irregular east of the Mississippi River. Established as an exotic in several Eastern states (cf. Fernald, 1950).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CTexotic, GAnative and exotic, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MAexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MO, NC, NE, NYexotic, OK, RIexotic, TN, TX, VAexotic, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Calhoun (01015)*, Chambers (01017)*, Greene (01063), Lee (01081)*, Sumter (01119)
NC Gaston (37071)*, Granville (37077), McDowell (37111)*, Mecklenburg (37119)*, Richmond (37153), Rutherford (37161)
NE Richardson (31147)*
TN Coffee (47031), Montgomery (47125)*, Rutherford (47149)*
WI Dane (55025), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049), Lafayette (55065), Racine (55101), Rock (55105), Vernon (55123)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Neuse (03020201)+, Upper Pee Dee (03040104)+, Upper Catawba (03050101)+*, South Fork Catawba (03050102)+*, Lower Catawba (03050103)+*, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+*, Middle Tallapoosa (03150109)+*, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+*, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Lower Black Warrior (03160113)+*
04 Pike-Root (04040002)+
05 Stones (05130203)+*, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+*
06 Upper Elk (06030003)+
07 Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+
10 Big Nemaha (10240008)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Family Asteraceae. Perennial prairie forb. Stems simple, occasionally branched, to 1 m in height, hirsute pubescence; leaves linear to lanceolate; rays long, slender, drooping or reflexed, white to dark pink in a color cline from south to north; pollen white. Flowers June.
Habitat Comments: Rocky prairies, savannas, open wooded hillsides, glades, barrens, generally over a limestone substrate. Also occurs along roadsides. Partial to full sun.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Feb2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. McKeown (1999), rev. L. Morse (2000), minor rev. K. Gravuer (2010)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baskin, J.M., Snyder K.M. and Baskin, C.C. 1995. Nomenclatural history and taxonomic status of Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. tennesseensis (Asteraceae). Sida 15(4):597-604.

  • Binns, S. E., B. R. Baun and J. T. Arnason. 2002. A taxonomic revision or Echinaceae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Systematic Botany 27(3):610-632.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • McGregor, R.L. 1968. The taxonomy of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48(4): 113-142.

  • McKeown, K.A. 1999. A review of the taxonomy of the genus Echinacea. Pages 482-489 in: J. Janick (ed.). Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

  • Moye, William S. 2006. Highly Ranked Plants of the South Mountain Region. Unpublished notes sent via email to Misty Franklin in February 2006.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora: A Guide to the Identification and Occurrence of the Native and Naturalized Seed-Plants of the State. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae - Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor. 622 pp.

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