Echinacea angustifolia - DC.
Narrowleaf Purple Coneflower
Other English Common Names: Black-samson
Other Common Names: blacksamson echinacea
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Echinacea angustifolia DC. (TSN 37276)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128470
Element Code: PDAST38010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Echinacea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Echinacea angustifolia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Feb2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread in the Great Plains region. Although still abundant, this species has suffered nearly a century of wild root harvesting across the range. Other threats include the destruction of its native prairie habitat by converting it to pastures and highway maintenance practices.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (04Jun1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (SNR), District of Columbia (SNA), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNR), Louisiana (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SH), Montana (S4), Nebraska (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Texas (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Global range is based on E. angustifolia var. angustifolia; var. strigosa is quite rare if not extinct.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: E. angustifolia var. angustifolia was historically abundant, secure and widespread throughout the Great Plains. Although in decline from digging and presently spotty in distribution, there are still many occurrences. Occurrences of this variety account for the global estimate of element occurrences. E. angustifolia var. strigosa is an endemic with an historically narrow range. At present, there are few, if any, known occurrences of this other variety.

Population Size Comments: Global abundance is based on E. angustifolia var. angustifolia; var. strigosa is quite rare if not extinct.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Human actual threat: excessive root digging; highway maintenance including mowing, use of herbicides; conversion of prairie to pasture.

Short-term Trend Comments: The species is declining, probably rapidly. E. angustifolia var. angustifolia was the most widely used plant of the Plains' Indians (Kindscher 1989) and has been extremely popular with root diggers. Because of the close phenotypic similarity of E. angustifolia var. strigosa to var. angustifolia, var. strigosa has been under the general threat of Echinacea root digging.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Global range is based on E. angustifolia var. angustifolia; var. strigosa is quite rare if not extinct.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, DCexotic, IA, KS, LA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY
Canada MB, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MO Bates (29013)*, Cape Girardeau (29031)*, Johnson (29101)*, St. Clair (29185)*, St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*, Vernon (29217)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+*, Whitewater (07140107)+*
10 Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+*, Blackwater (10300104)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Family Asteraceae. Perennial prairie forb. Two varieties. Stem height to about 0.5m; hirsute or strigose pubescence; leaves lanceolate to linear; pale to dark pink rays; yellow pollen. Flowers June to July.
Habitat Comments: Dry mixed and tall grass prairies, rocky barrens and limestone bluffs. Full sun.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Feb2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. McKeown (1999), rev. L. Morse (2000)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Harms, V.L., P.A. Ryan and J.A. Haraldson. 1992. The rare and endangered vascular plants of Saskatchewan. Prepared for the Saskatchewan Natural History Society. Unpubl.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • McGregor, R.L. 1968. The taxonomy of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48(4): 113-142.

  • McKeown, K.A. 1999. A review of the taxonomy of the genus Echinacea. Pages 482-489 in: J. Janick (ed.). Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

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