Drosophila ochrobasis - Hardy and Kaneshiro, 1968
a pomace fly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.111660
Element Code: IIDIP11180
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Other Insects
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Diptera Drosophilidae Drosophila
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nishida, G.M., Ed. 1994a. Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropoda Checklist. Second Edition. Hawaii Biological Survey, Contribution No. 94-04. Bishop Museum: Honolulu, Hawaii. 287 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B94NIS01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Drosophila ochrobasis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Jan2015
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jan2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Drosophila ochrobasis was historically known from 10 sites, widely distributed across the island of Hawaii. It is now only known from one site on the Puu O Umi Preserve, Kohala Mountains (USFWS 2012).
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (22Jan2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (09May2006)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Based on USFWS (2012):

Drosophila ochrobasis has been recorded from ten localities on four of Hawaii Island?s five volcanoes (Hualalai, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and the Kohala mountains). Recorded almost every year from 1967 to 1975, sometimes in relatively large numbers (135 occurrences in the period between 1970 and 1974), D. ochrobasis is now less commonly observed from its historical localities (Table). Until 2006, the last observation of D. ochrobasis was a single individual recorded at the 1855 lava flow (Kipuka 9 and Kipuka 14) in 1986 (K. Kaneshiro, in litt. 2005). Several surveys between 1995 and 1997 failed to locate the species at many of its historical sites (K. Kaneshiro, in litt. 2005). During field surveys in 2006, Dr. Karl Magnacca recorded an observation of one individual on private land near Kawaiihae Uka, a previously unknown population site (K. Magnacca in litt. 2012a). In 2009 and 2010, five D. ochrobasis flies were observed on the Puu O Umi Preserve in the Kilohana exclosure (K. Magnacca, in litt. 2012a) in the Kohala Mountains.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: In 2009 and 2010, five individuals of D. ochrobasis were observed on the Puu O Umi Preserve, Kohala Mountains (USFWS 2012).

Population Size: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Severely threatened primarily by introduced species. The most serious threats are from feral ungulates, an array of plants, especially Himalayan raspberry and banana poka vine, that are destroying its remaining habitat; and from several species of imported ants and a yellowjacket which are now serious predators; and probably from out of control biocontrols. i.e. parasitoids in the family Braconidae which oviposit in and kill the larvae but probably cannot develop in them.

Species of Drosophila on the island of Hawaii are threatened by the following (from USFWS, 2006a; USFWS, 2006b; USFWS, 2006c and sources cited therein):

(1) Habitat degradation by introduced ungulates, such as pigs and goats. Feral pigs and goats have dramatically altered the native vegetation and destroy host plant seedlings and habitat by the trampling of their hooves and through the spread of seeds of nonnative plants. Goats, pigs, rats and cattle feed upon D. ochrobasis host plants and feral cattle and goats contribute to erosion on some steeper slopes where D. ochrobasis host plants occur.
(2) Introduction of nonnative beetles (family Scolytidae, genus Coccotrypes). D. mulli is most affected as these beetle species can bore into and feed on the nuts of its host plant Pritchardia beccariana. Little natural regeneration of this host plant species has been observed in the wild since the arrival of this scolytid beetle.
(3) The invasion of several nonative plants, particularly Psidium cattleianum, Rubus ellipticus, Passiflora mollissima, and Pennisetum setaceum, contributes to the degradation of picture-wing host plant habitat and P. setaceum has greatly increased fire risks in some regions, especially on the dry slopes of Hualalai, Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes on the island of Hawaii.
(4) Competition at the larval stage from nonnative tipulid flies.
(5) Substantial predation pressure from nonnative insects such as long-legged ants and yellow jacket wasps.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Has disappeared within about 30-35 years from five of six known stations and declined at the other.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Generation time is probably brief and even a short term event could wipe out this population.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: On-going sampling projects are probably adequate and should be continued if this species is Federally listed. Incidental take permits, if needed, should be applied for and granted as soon after listing as practical.

Protection Needs: Protection for this species essentially involves control of threats from exotics either to the food resources or directly to these insects themselves at its known remaining site. It is unclear whether this is possible. Adequate protection from alien Arthropods in particular may be far more difficult than reducing alien weeds or ungulates.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) Based on USFWS (2012):

Drosophila ochrobasis has been recorded from ten localities on four of Hawaii Island?s five volcanoes (Hualalai, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and the Kohala mountains). Recorded almost every year from 1967 to 1975, sometimes in relatively large numbers (135 occurrences in the period between 1970 and 1974), D. ochrobasis is now less commonly observed from its historical localities (Table). Until 2006, the last observation of D. ochrobasis was a single individual recorded at the 1855 lava flow (Kipuka 9 and Kipuka 14) in 1986 (K. Kaneshiro, in litt. 2005). Several surveys between 1995 and 1997 failed to locate the species at many of its historical sites (K. Kaneshiro, in litt. 2005). During field surveys in 2006, Dr. Karl Magnacca recorded an observation of one individual on private land near Kawaiihae Uka, a previously unknown population site (K. Magnacca in litt. 2012a). In 2009 and 2010, five D. ochrobasis flies were observed on the Puu O Umi Preserve in the Kilohana exclosure (K. Magnacca, in litt. 2012a) in the Kohala Mountains.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A picture-winged pomace fly.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Habitat Comments: The larvae of this species have been reported to feed within decomposing portions of three different host plant groups, Myrsine spp. (family Myrsinaceae), Clermontia spp. (family Campanulaceae), and Marattia douglasii (family Marattiaceae) (Montgomery 1975) (USFWS 2012).
Food Comments: Larvae feed on decaying plant matter of at least the following genera: MYRSINE, CLERMONTIA and MARATTIA.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: It is important that Federal listing of this species not impede on-going sampling projects and biological studies.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jan2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Sears, N. (2015); Schweitzer, D.F. (1998)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Aug1998
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Asquith, A. 1995. Alien species and the extinction crisis of Hawaii's invertebrates. Endangered Species Update 12(6):6-11.

  • Magnacca, K.N, and D.K. Price. 2012. New species of Hawaiian picture wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with a key to species. Zootaxa 3188:1?30.

  • Nishida, G.M., Ed. 1994a. Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropoda Checklist. Second Edition. Hawaii Biological Survey, Contribution No. 94-04. Bishop Museum: Honolulu, Hawaii. 287 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Category and Listing Priority Forms.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Okaloosa darter technical/agency draft revised recovery plan. Atlanta, Georgia.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006a. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for 12 species of picture-wing Flies from the Hawaiian Islands. Federal Register, Volume 71, number 89, May 9, 2006, pp.26835-26852.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006b. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed designation of critical habitat for 11 species of picture-wing flies from the Hawaiian Islands; proposed rule. Federal Register 71(157):46994-47054.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006c. Recovery outline for 12 Hawaiian picture-wing flies. Pacific Region Ecological Services, Pacific Region. 32 pp. Online. Available: http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/documents/Drosophilarecoveryoutline-final.pdf

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2012. Picture-wing fly (Drosophila ochrobasis) 5-Year Review Summary and Evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, Honolulu, Hawaii. 17 pp.

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