Dreissena polymorpha - (Pallas, 1771)
Zebra Mussel
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) (TSN 81339)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109673
Element Code: IMBIVAE010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Other Mollusks
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Dreissenidae Dreissena
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dreissena polymorpha
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2007
Global Status Last Changed: 25Feb1998
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: A widespread and extremely invasive species.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (07Oct2003)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (23Sep2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New York (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Widespread in Europe; originally native to the Black and Caspian seas; accidently introduced into into the Great Lakes in North America in the mid 1980s. It has since spread to the Mississippi, Ohio, and Susquehanna river systems. It is thought that it will eventually colonize most of the lower 48 United States and southern Canada (Strayer, 1991).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species has been present in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin since at least the mid-1990s and an abundant population inhabits Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and in Wind Lake Drainage Canal near Waterford, Wisconsin, but only a single live individual was encountered in a comprehensive survey of the Fox River basin recently near McHenry, Illinois (Schanzle et al., 2004). In Alabama, it is found only in the Tennessee River and has not been reported from teh Mobile Basin (Williams et al., 2008).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%

Long-term Trend: Increase of >25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Widespread in Europe; originally native to the Black and Caspian seas; accidently introduced into into the Great Lakes in North America in the mid 1980s. It has since spread to the Mississippi, Ohio, and Susquehanna river systems. It is thought that it will eventually colonize most of the lower 48 United States and southern Canada (Strayer, 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CTexotic, IAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, PAexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada ONexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MO Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a freswater mussel
General Description: See Hopkins (1990) for identification and development of the larvae.
Reproduction Comments: Egg production and fertization take place when water temperatures are above 12 degrees C.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Czarnoleski et al. (2004) found that zebra mussel density not affected by substrate orientation, but was significantly higher on complex than on flat substrates indicating gregariousness of zebra mussels may be an evolved antipredation strategy rather than a result of hyperproduction of larvae competing for scarce substrates.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Feb2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2007); Morrison, M. (1998)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Jul2004
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, S.M. and D.J. Hornbach. 2000. Physiological status and biochemical composition of a natural population of unionid mussels (Amblema plicata) infested by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). American Midland Naturalist 143: 443-452.

  • Beekey, M.A., D.J. McCabe, and J.E. Marsden. 2004. Zebra mussel colonisation of soft sediments facilitates invertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology, 49: 535-545.

  • Czarnoleski, M., L. Michalczyk, and A. Pajdak-Stos. 2004. Substrate preference in settling zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 159(2): 263-270.

  • D'Itri, F, editor. 1997. Zebra mussels and aquatic nuisance species. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Michigan. 650 pp.

  • Hart, R.A., J.W. Grier, and A.C. Miller. 2004. Simulation models of harvested and zebra mussel colonized threeridge mussel populations int he upper Mississippi River. American Midland Naturalist, 151: 301-317.

  • Hopkins, G. J. 1990. The zebra mussel, DREISSENA POLYMORPHA: a photographic guide to the identification of microscopic veligers. Report submitted to Environment [Queen's Printer for Ontario], Ontario, Canada. 7 pp + 30 figures.

  • Johnson, P.D. and R.F. McMahon. 1998. Effects of temperature and chronic hypoxia on survivorship of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55: 1564-1572.

  • Mantecca, P., B. Vailati, L. Garibaldi, and R. Bacchetta. 2003. Depth effects on zebra mussel reproduction. Malacologia, 45(1): 109-120.

  • Ram, J.L., V. Shukla, and K.N. King. 2004. Zebra mussels at the freshwater/sea interface: ionic and osmotic challenges to oocyte integrity. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 45(1): 83-89.

  • Schanzle, R.W., G.W. Kruse, J.A. Kath, R.A. Klocek, and K.S. Cummings. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Fox River basin, Illinois and Wisconsin. Illinois Natural History Biological Notes, 141: 1-35.

  • Strayer, D.L. 1991. Projected distribution of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48: 1389-1395.

  • Strayer, D.L. and H.M. Malcom. 2007. Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on native bivalves: the beginning of the end of teh end of the beginning? Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 26(1): 111-122.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Wacker, A. and E. von Elert. 2003. Settlement pattern of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, as a function of depth in Lake Constance. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 158(3): 289-301.

  • Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, and J. T Garner. 2008. Freshwater mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi, & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pages.

  • Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.

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