Dorosoma cepedianum - (Lesueur, 1818)
Gizzard Shad
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur, 1818) (TSN 161737)
French Common Names: alose à gésier
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104453
Element Code: AFCFA02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Clupeiformes Clupeidae Dorosoma
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dorosoma cepedianum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 09Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S5), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), New Jersey (S4), New Mexico (S4), New York (S3), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Atlantic, and Gulf drainages from Quebec to North Dakota and New Mexico, south to southern Florida and Mexico; introduced outside native range (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: This species has increased in abundance in the lower Missouri River as a result of human-caused changes in the river (e.g., reservoir construction) (Pflieger and Grace 1987).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Atlantic, and Gulf drainages from Quebec to North Dakota and New Mexico, south to southern Florida and Mexico; introduced outside native range (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NNexotic, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VTexotic, WI, WV, WY
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)
02 Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Southern Long Island (02030202), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Delaware Bay (02040204), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Upper Chesapeake Bay (02060001), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Upper Catawba (03050101), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Upper Broad (03050105), Lower Broad (03050106), Tyger (03050107), Saluda (03050109), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Broad (03060104), Little (03060105), Middle Savannah (03060106), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Ogeechee Coastal (03060204), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), Little Satilla (03070202), Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Caloosahatchee (03090205)*, Myakka (03100102), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Little (03110204), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), Apalachicola Bay (03130014), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Pensacola Bay (03140105), Perdido (03140106), Perdido Bay (03140107), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104)*, Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Oconto (04030104)*, Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), Lake Huron (04080300), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008)*, Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)
05 Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115)*, Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001)*, Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007)*, Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Green (07090007)*, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Bad (10140102), Medicine (10140104), Lower White (10140204), Ponca (10150001), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Vermillion (10170102), South Big Sioux Coteau (10170103), Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Upper North Loup (10210006), Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Loup (10210009), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002)*, Little Sioux (10230003)*, Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002)*, East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011)*, Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Stinking Water (10250006), Red Willow (10250007), Medicine (10250008), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Lower Sappa (10250011), Beaver (10250014), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Kansas (10270101)*, Middle Kansas (10270102)*, Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), West Fork Big Blue (10270203), Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)*, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)*, Little Osage (10290103)*, Marmaton (10290104)*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013)*, Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Upper Cimarron (11040002), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103)*, Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204)*, Middle Neosho (11070205)*, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Conchas (11080005)*, Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Revuelto (11080008), Middle Canadian-Trujillo (11090101), Punta De Agua (11090102), Rita Blanca (11090103), Carrizo (11090104), Lake Meredith (11090105), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Coldwater (11100103), Palo Duro (11100104), Lower Beaver (11100201), Upper Wolf (11100202), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Tierra Blanca (11120101), Palo Duro (11120102), Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120103), Tule (11120104), Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120105), Upper Salt Fork Red (11120201), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Upper North Fork Red (11120301), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), North Pease (11130103), Middle Pease (11130104), Pease (11130105), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), North Wichita (11130204), South Wichita (11130205), Wichita (11130206), Southern Beaver (11130207), Northern Beaver (11130208), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Washita headwaters (11130301), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), North Galveston Bay (12040203), West Galveston Bay (12040204), Austin-Oyster (12040205), Yellow House Draw (12050001), Blackwater Draw (12050002), North Fork Double Mountain Fork (12050003), Double Moutain Fork Brazos (12050004), Running Water Draw (12050005), White (12050006), Salt Fork Brazos (12050007), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Hubbard (12060105), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Lost Draw (12080001), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Monument-Seminole Draws (12080003), Mustang Draw (12080004), Johnson Draw (12080005), Sulphur Springs Draw (12080006), Beals (12080007), Upper Colorado (12080008), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), South Concho (12090102), Middle Concho (12090103), North Concho (12090104), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Jim Ned (12090108), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Bernard (12090401), East Matagorda Bay (12090402), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Central Matagorda Bay (12100401), West Matagorda Bay (12100402), East San Antonio Bay (12100403), West San Antonio Bay (12100404), Aransas Bay (12100405), Mission (12100406), Aransas (12100407), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Upper Nueces (12110103), Turkey (12110104), Middle Nueces (12110105), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), North Corpus Christi Bay (12110201), South Corpus Christi Bay (12110202), North Laguna Madre (12110203), San Fernando (12110204), Baffin Bay (12110205), Palo Blanco (12110206), Central Laguna Madre (12110207), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203), Rio Puerco (13020204), Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211), Caballo (13030101), El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102), Rio Grande-Fort Quitman (13040100), Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Alamito (13040202), Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Terlingua (13040204), Big Bend (13040205), Maravillas (13040206), Santiago Draw (13040207), Reagan-Sanderson (13040208), San Francisco (13040209), Lozier Canyon (13040210), Big Canyon (13040211), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Upper Devils (13040301), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Salt Basin (13050004), Pecos headwaters (13060001), Upper Pecos (13060003), Arroyo Del Macho (13060005)*, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007), Rio Hondo (13060008), Rio Felix (13060009)*, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011), Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001), Delaware (13070002), Toyah (13070003), Salt Draw (13070004), Barrilla Draw (13070005), Coyanosa-Hackberry Draws (13070006), Landreth-Monument Draws (13070007), Lower Pecos (13070008), Tunas (13070009), Independence (13070010), Howard Draw (13070011), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001), Lower Rio Grande (13090002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns at night, spring to summer. Eggs hatch in about 2-4 days. Sexually mature usually in 2-3 years. Life span generally about 4-6 years; few survive beyond age III (Sublette et al. 1990).
Ecology Comments: Travels in schools. Important source of food for piscivorous fishes and for certain waterfowl (e.g., mergansers) (Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes medium to large rivers, reservoirs, lakes, swamps, bays, sloughs, and similar quiet open waters, from clear to very silty; this is an open water species; it often ascends creeks and small rivers that have well-developed pools; it commonly enters brackish water (Page and Burr 2011). Juveniles occur in quiet surface waters, adults in deeper water or near bottom (Sublette et al. 1990). Spawning occurs in shallow water usually over sandy/rocky substrates; eggs are scattered, adhere to objects (Sublette et al. 1990). This fish may ascend smaller streams or ditches to spawn. It has spawned in 1 meter of water over a sandy-rocky bar in Lake Erie (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Juveniles are nonvisual planktivores, taking protozoans, small crustaceans, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta (Sublette et al. 1990). Adults primarily bottom filter-feeding detritivores; eat large quantities of material from aufwuchs assemblage, especially from littoral areas; also takes phytoplankton in open water (Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 35 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Fishes with Anadromous Populations

Use Class: Freshwater
Subtype(s): Rearing & Migration Area, Spawning & Rearing Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat. For anadromous populations, occurrences are based on collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more spawning adults, redds, other evidence of spawning, or larvae or juveniles in appropriate spawning/rearing habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire freshwater area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, and migration areas. For anadromous populations, an occurrence should extend from the most upstream spawning areas downstream to the ocean. However, it is desirable (and practical) to subdivide this sometimes very large occurrence, sometimes overlapping with many other spaghetti-like occurrences extending down from the upstream spawning areas to the ocean, into separate source features or sub-occurrences, labeled with a feature label that reflects the life history stage in that area. Moreover, it may make practical sense to treat the areas downstream of spawning and/or rearing areas as a mixed element animal assemblage: Freshwater Salmon Migration Corridor. This negates the need to separately map each occurrence down to the ocean from its upstream spawning location. Information about areas with different life-history uses can be generated by using best professional judgment by district or regional fish biologists and may or may not incorporate specific locational information from spawning surveys or other surveys.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat that is very unlikely to be submerged even during periods of exceptionally high water (e.g., 100-year flood or 1% flood).
Alternate Separation Procedure: For anadromous populations and migratory populations that have distinct and separate spawning and nonspawning areas, the area used by each population whose spawning area is separated by a gap of at least 10 stream-km from other spawning areas within a stream system is potentially mappable as a distinct occurrence that extends down to the ocean (but see mapping guidance), regardless of whether the spawning areas are in the same or different tributaries.

For other (e.g., nonanadromous) populations in streams, separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory, nonanadromous populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: The separation distance is arbitrary but was selected to ensure that occurrences are of manageable size but not too small. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

"Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002). Redband trout in Montana had October-December home ranges of 5-377 m, consistent with small movements observed for radio-tagged brook trout and cutthroat trout during fall and winter (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). For nonanadromous populations, little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site).

In summer and fall, radio-tagged cutthroat trout in Strawberry Reservoir in Utah had single-month home ranges that were usually about 3-4 km in maximum length (Baldwin et al. 2002). In the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, radio-tagged westslope cutthroat trout moved 3-72 km (mean 31 km) to access spawning tributaries (Schmetterling 2001). This indicates that migratory but nonanadromous populations may use extensive areas and that one should not invoke the 10-km separation distance without considering the full extent of the population.

Date: 25Nov2009
Author: Hammerson, G., and L. Master
Notes: This Specs Group comprises fish species that include anadromous populations (may also include nonanadromous populations), such as lampreys, sturgeons, herrings, shads, salmonids, and smelts.

Criteria for marine occurrences (Location Use Class: Marine) have not yet been established. These may not be needed for marine occurrences of species that likely will be dealt with as mixed element assemblages (e.g., Salmonid Marine Concentration Area).

Feature Descriptor Definitions:

Spawning Area: area used for spawning but not for rearing or migration.

Rearing Area: area used for larval/juvenile development but not for spawning or migration.

Migration Corridor: area used for migration but not for rearing or spawning.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Nov2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Bahr, L.M. and J.J. Hebrard. 1976. Barataria Basin: Biological Characterization. CWR, LSU. Sea Grant Publication No. LSU-T-76-005.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Bodola, A. 1966. Life history of the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (Leseur), in western Lake Erie. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fisheries Bulletin 65(2):391-425.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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