Dodecatheon austrofrigidum - K.L. Chambers
Southerly Frigid Shootingstar
Other English Common Names: Tundra Shootingstar
Other Common Names: tundra shootingstar
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dodecatheon austrofrigidum sp. nov. ined. (TSN 502106)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153712
Element Code: PDPRI030L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Primrose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Primulaceae Dodecatheon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dodecatheon austrofrigidum
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1994 and 1999) accepted this as "Dodecatheon austrofrigidum, sp. nov. ined." The taxon was subsequently described by Chambers (2006) as Dodecatheon austrofrigidum K. L. Chambers.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Oct2015
Global Status Last Changed: 08Feb1989
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Occurs at scattered sites in the Coast Ranges of northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington. Known from eight or nine occurrences, six in Oregon (in two counties) and two or three in Washington (in two counties). At least two of these occurrences receive some protection and monitoring. Populations tend to have a limited number of individuals due to this species' restricted habitat. Populations exist in high elevation areas and also in lower elevation riverside sites. At the riverside sites, some threats exist due to logging and grazing upstream, which contributes to flooding and erosion that negatively impacts populations. Overall trends in these populations have proved difficult to detect, however, due to year-to-year variability in river behavior and consequent population size.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Oregon (S2), Washington (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Restricted to the Coast Ranges of northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington; occurs at scattered sites from the southern Olympic mountains, WA (Mt. Colonel Bob) to Tillamook County, OR (including Saddle Mountain and Onion Peak, Clatsop Co., OR) (Chambers 2006). Chambers (2006) hypothesized that low-elevation populations along rivers in Tillamook Co. may have become established by seeds washed down from the mountain populations.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from eight to nine locations, six in Oregon (in two counties) and two (3) in Washington (in two counties), according to both Chambers (2006) and Element Occurrence data (2015).

Population Size Comments: Reveal (2006) noted that "populations are widely scattered and always with a limited numbers of individuals due to its restricted habitat." One occurrence in Washington was estimated to contain approximately 100 flowering plants in "dense populations", while the other Washington occurrence was last counted at approximately 15 clumps. In Oregon, one occurrence was described as "locally abundant", and another was "abundant" in 1972, though a more recent (1998) observation noted "few plants just starting to bloom." Numbers of plants in other Oregon occurrences unknown.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: At least one Oregon occurrence was described as "locally abundant" when last observed and was thought to have good probability of persistence by the Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center. Population size and estimated probability of persistence is unknown for most other occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include heavy flooding along river sites, caused or exacerbated by logging and cattle grazing upstream. This contributes to rainwater and debris run-off that can scour the habitat when water levels rise (Raven 1995, cited by Center for Plant Conservation, n.d.). Flooding and erosion can bury or dislodge the plants (Center for Plant Conservation, n.d.). Trampling has also been identified as a threat (Raven 1995, cited by Center for Plant Conservation, n.d.), although many locations are difficult to reach (Berry Botanic Garden no date).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Population size can fluctuate greatly, in part due to river behavior (Center for Plant Conservation, n.d.). A six-year monitoring study found yearly population changes, with an initial decrease in plant numbers during a flood year followed by an increase as the population recovered; however, the final two years of monitoring revealed that the population was significantly declining after heavy flooding and site disturbance, with the 1996 population being one-quarter the size of the 1994 population (Raven 1996, cited by Center for Plant Conservation n.d.). The annual fluctuations make assessments of overall trend over more than a few years difficult.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Restricted to the Coast Ranges of northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington; occurs at scattered sites from the southern Olympic mountains, WA (Mt. Colonel Bob) to Tillamook County, OR (including Saddle Mountain and Onion Peak, Clatsop Co., OR) (Chambers 2006). Chambers (2006) hypothesized that low-elevation populations along rivers in Tillamook Co. may have become established by seeds washed down from the mountain populations.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States OR, WA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OR Clatsop (41007), Tillamook (41057)
WA Grays Harbor (53027), Pacific (53049)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Columbia (17080006)+, Queets-Quinault (17100102)+, Willapa Bay (17100106)+, Necanicum (17100201)+*, Nehalem (17100202)+*, Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu (17100203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A perennial herb up to 45 cm tall. Flowers have five lavender to magenta petals, attached to a white corolla tube with a thin, wavy, reddish to purplish line at the base. Stamens are maroon to dark purple and their filaments are not united at the base. Tip of stigma is not enlarged. Fruit is a capsule with an operculum, a cap-like structure that pops off when seeds are ready for dispersal. Leaves are in a basal rosettes and are oval to elliptical in shape; leaf margins are often toothed, but may also be smooth. Flowering April-July.
Technical Description: Description based primarily on Chambers (2006) and Reveal (2006). A perennial herb 5.5-45 cm tall; plants generally glabrous, glandular-puberulent distally. Having numerous white, stout, fibrous roots, often producing adventitious buds. The first principle adult root is produced adventitiously from the apex of the hypocotyls. Leaves in a basal rosette (stems leafless). Leaf blades broad (0.7-7cm wide) and 2.5-30 cm long, glabrous, ovate to elliptical in shape, gradually (occasionally abruptly) tapering to a winged narrow petiole. Leaf margins entire to denticulate; degree of denticulation seems to vary among populations. Inflorescence a bracteate umbel with 1-7 flowers on pedicels, pedicels 4 - 55 mm long, bracts lanceolate and 2.5-10 mm long. Flowers 5-merous; calyx triangular, green, 5-11 mm; corolla lobes lavender to magenta, 9-23 mm long and 2-6 mm wide; corolla tube white, 1-2 mm long, with a thin, wavy, reddish to purplish line at the base; anthers and filaments maroon to dark purple, filaments free (not united at base); tip of stigma not enlarged. Fruit an ovoid capsule, greenish to tannish with purple speckles, dehiscence operculate. Seeds 1-2 mm, rounded or prismatic. Seedlings with petiolate cotyledons, with the first true leaf petiolate and arising between them. Flowering April-July, depending on habitat and elevation; in Washington, easiest to identify in June.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Can be distinguished from D. dentatum by its lavender to magenta petals; in D. dentatum, petals are white (Washington Natural Heritage Program 2006). Can be distinguished from D. pulchellum and D. hendersonii by its stamens that are separate at the base; in D. pulchellum and D. hendersonii, the filament tube is united at the based of the stamens (Washington Natural Heritage Program 2006, Oregon Flora Project 2007). D. hendersonii also has more rounded leaves than D. austrofrigidum, and is typically found on east side of the crest of the Coast Range, such there is little potential distribution overlap (Oregon Flora Project 2007). In fact, Chambers (2006) asserts that there is little range overlap between D. austrofrigidum and any other member of the genus Dodecatheon. Floral morphology appears most similar to D. frigidum, but there is great geographic distance between the known ranges of the two species, with D. frigidum a species of the interior mountains and artic tundra of Alaska and northern British Columbia. Additionally, D. austrofrigidum has capsules that are operculate in dehiscence, while related species have capsules that are valvate in dehiscence. (Chambers 2006). Finally, the seedling development of D. austrofrigidum also appears distinct from all other species in genus; in D. austrofrigidum, the start of the major root system forms adventitiously at the base of the first true leaf (which is situated between the cotyledons), replacing the seedling's initial temporary root system (Chambers 2006).
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Occupies somewhat distinct habitats at lower and higher elevation sites. At lower elevations (conifer forest/woodland landscapes), occurs on steep, moist, exposed basalt slopes along rivers and near waterfalls, and on nearby ridges. Growing on rock faces, in rock crevices, on talus, under overhanging cliffs, on sloping cold river rock banks below the scour line (1-5 m from the water's edge), and in other rocky, open or shaded vernally moist areas. In the immediate area, there may be few species other than mosses, which may aid the plant by invading cracks in the basalt rock surfaces and creating a substrate in which it can root. At higher elevations, occurs on moist, grassy turf, often over a rocky substrate. In all habitats, soil, when present, is typically thin, although plants have also been found on rotting wood. Associated species at higher elevation sites include Abies amabilis, Tsuga heterophylla, Cladothamnus sp., Synthyris schizantha, while associated species at lower elevation streambank sites include Alnus rubra, Filipendula occidentalis, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus spectabilis, Saxifraga occidentalis, Saxifraga nuttallii, Saxifraga mertensiana , and Mimulus guttatas. 30 - 1225 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Seek long term protection for exceptional sites. Review most critical threats and consider the feasibility of their removal and how their removal will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other species of interest. Management to alleviate the flooding and erosion that threaten plants at riverside sites in Oregon is needed. These issues need to be addressed upstream of the populations. Actions that contribute to restoring natural river hydrology would likely be beneficial to the plants.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Oct2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury (2006), rev. K. Gravuer (2008), rev. A. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 14Oct2015
Management Information Edition Author: Gravuer, K. (2008), rev. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Berry Botanic Garden. no date. Studying the frigid shooting star. Online. Available: www.berrybot.org/pubs/ar_stdoau.html (Accessed 2008)

  • Buckingham, N.M., E.G. Schreiner, T.N. Kaye, J.E. Burger, and E.L. Tisch. 1995. Flora of the Olympic Peninsula. Northwest Interpretive Association and Washington Native Plant Society, Seattle, Washington. 199 pp.

  • Center for Plant Conservation. No date. Center for Plant Conservation National Collection Plant Profile: Dodecatheon austrofrigidum. Online. Available: http://ridgwaydb.mobot.org/cpcweb/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=7008. Accessed 2003, June 2.

  • Chambers, K. L. 2006. A new species of Dodecatheon (Primulaceae) from the northern Coast Range of Oregon and Washington. Sida 22(1): 461-467.

  • Chambers, Kenton L. 2006. A new species of Dodecatheon (Primulaceae) from the northern coast range of Oregon and Washington. Sida 22(1): 461-467.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Oregon Flora Project. 2007 last update. Rare Plant Guide. Online. Available: http://www.oregonflora.org/rareplants/index.php (Accessed 2008).

  • Reveal, J. L. 2006, 18 Dec last update. Revision of Dodecatheon (Primulaceae). Online. Available: http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/fna/dodecatheon.html (Accessed 2008)

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program and U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management. 2006. Field guide to selected rare plants of Washington. Online. Available: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/htm/fsfgabc.htm. (Accessed 2006).

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1997. Endangered, Threatened and Sensitive Vascular Plants of Washington - with Working Lists of Rare Non-Vascular Species. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia. 62 p.

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