Dionaea muscipula - Ellis
Venus' Flytrap
Other Common Names: Venus flytrap
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dionaea muscipula Ellis (TSN 22008)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159781
Element Code: PDDRO01010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Nepenthales Droseraceae Dionaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dionaea muscipula
Taxonomic Comments: Monotypic genus; considered by some to be in its own family (Dionaeaceae), by others as part of Droseraceae (Weakley 1996).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Jan2000
Global Status Last Changed: 04Nov1986
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This species is a narrow endemic of the coastal plain of North and South Carolina, and has very stringent requirements for frequent natural fire and an open understory. It continues to experience some collection from wild populations, though most people familiar with this species identify habitat conversion and fire suppression as the largest threats to this species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is endemic to a narrow region entirely within the outer coastal plain of North Carolina and South Carolina, ranging from Pamlico County, North Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010) south to Charleston County, South Carolina (historic population only; Pittman pers. comm.). Roberts and Oosting (1958) concluded that its total range is probably determined by its being exclusively limited to soils having a high water table, an organic hardpan usually not more than 60 cm below the surface, and a pH range of 3.9-4.5. Venus flytraps have been transplanted by well-intentioned but ecologically misguided people to the Pine Barrens of New Jersey (Snyder 1989) and to the Apalachicola National Forest in the Florida panhandle (Clewell 1985, Sorrie 1991). In each instance, a single small population survives, apparently unable to increase appreciably in size. These extra-limital transplants are considered inconsequential to the conservation of the species.

Venus flytrap is currently extant in 11 counties in North Carolina and one county in South Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010, Pittman pers. comm.). Largest concentrations of this species are in Brunswick, Carteret, Onslow, and Pender Counties in North Carolina. This species has been nearly extirpated in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, and persists in the Sandhills of North Carolina only at a few sites in Fort Bragg (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010). A feeble, exotic population is also found in Escambia County, Alabama (Schotz pers. comm.).

Current range: The range of Venus flytrap is quite localized in scattered savannas of the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina and adjacent eastern South Carolina in an approximate landward radius of 100 miles around Wilmington, North Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010). Currently 68 extant occurrences are known from the following counties in North Carolina (the number of occurrences in parentheses): Bladen (5), Brunswick (21), Carteret (1), Columbus (3), Craven (1), Cumberland (4), Hoke (7), New Hanover (5), Onslow (12), Pender (7), and Sampson (2) (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010), and Horry County (4), South Carolina (South Carolina Heritage Trust 1993b).

24 occurrences in North Carolina were not relocated during the most recent surveys, but there are reasons to believe they are still present (the populations may have been difficult to relocate due to fire suppression or vague directions).

Historic range: Dionaea muscipula was first reported from Brunswick County, North Carolina, by Governor Dobbs in 1759 (Roberts and Oosting 1958). In 1958 its reported range extended from Chocowinity, Beaufort County, North Carolina, in the north, to the Santee River, South Carolina, in the south, and westward to the Sandhills region of Moore County, North Carolina (Roberts and Oosting 1958). Radford, et al. (1968), report Venus flytraps from 17 counties in North Carolina (Beaufort, Bladen, Brunswick, Carteret, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Jones, Lenoir, Moore, New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Robeson, and Sampson counties) and three counties in South Carolina (Charleston, Georgetown, and Horry counties). Buchanan (2010) lists it from 18 counties in North Carolina, with the addition of Hoke.

There are 31 known occurrences in North Carolina which are currently considered extirpated or historic. These occurrences were located in the following counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Carteret, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Lenoir, Moore, New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, and Robeson (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program Database 2010). In South Carolina there are 26 occurrences considered extirpated or historic in the following counties: Charleston, Georgetown, and Horry (South Carolina Heritage Trust 1993b). The high number of extirpated occurrences is indicative of the real threats to and continued decline of the species.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: 75-100 populations are extant rangewide. North Carolina: 68 extant/31 historic/24 failed to relocate in recent searches (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010); South Carolina: 6 (Pittman pers. comm.); Alabama: 1 feeble population, introduced (Schotz pers. comm.); Florida: few, introduced and persisting (Schotz pers. comm.; Morse pers. comm.); New Jersey: 1, introduced, persisting (Evert 1957, Weakley 1996, Sorrie 1991). [JRB]

A few of the historic populations might still be extant (Buchanan pers. comm. 2010). [JRB]

Population Size Comments: Population size is variable, can range from small populations of a few dozen to more typically thousands of the apparently rhizomatous rosettes (Amoroso pers. comm., Pittman pers. comm., Schafale pers. comm.). Based on records at NCNHP, the maximum number of plants in NC is probably around 150,000 (Buchanan pers. comm. 2010).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: North Carolina: 13 populations have greater than 2000 individuals (2010).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat conversion/destruction for forestry or development, and fire suppression are serious, urgent conservation concerns for this species (Frost pers. comm.) -- much more so than collection from wild populations (Amoroso pers. comm., Schafale pers. comm., Pittman pers. comm., Weakley 1996).

Occurrence numbers and sizes continue to decline primarily due to drastic changes in Dionaea's habitat as a result of fire suppression and conversion to agriculture, silviculture, and residential or commercial development which may involve logging, bedding, ditching, and draining. Fire suppression leads to shrub and tree encroachment and a gradual decline in the quality of flytrap habitat. Clear cutting and bedding can physically destroy plants, while ditching and draining can make the soil too dry for moisture-dependent flytraps. Many lesser quality, roadside occurrences of flytraps are threatened by vehicular activities, road maintenance, and road expansions.

Another major threat to flytraps is over-collection. In 1980, it was estimated that between one and four million plants were being sold each year, the majority believed removed from private and public lands in North and South Carolina (Sutter et al. 1982). Demand for flytraps continues strong, especially in Germany, Holland, and Japan, and continues to put collecting pressure on wild populations. The great majority of flytrap sellers still grow their plants from bulbs and cuttings taking from wild plants (Stolzenburg 1993). In 1994, 2,800 wild Dionaea muscipula plants were exported to Canada. There were no reported exports of wild D. muscipula in 1995 or 1996.

There is evidence from reliable sources that wild-collecting for the plant trade is occurring from many populations rangewide. Kral (1983) noted that "This is one of the most exploited of southeastern plants, large populations being decimated or exterminated for the novelty plant trade." It is difficult to say to what degree this continues to be a problem (Amoroso pers. comm.). It is possible that collection has significantly reduced one of the largest populations at Holly Shelter (Schafale pers. comm.).

A recent conviction of a Dutch citizen for collection and attempted smuggling of 8,000 live plants led to a $2,000 fine and 18 months' probation (The Washington Post, April 26, 1997).

A person knowledgable about the herbal medicinal trade says that the plant receives little use and is reportedly being cultivated (M. McGuffin pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The species is declining in its native range (Amoroso pers. comm., Pittman pers. comm., Schafale pers. comm., Russo 1993). It is reported to be doing well in some managed gameland areas in North Carolina where prescribed fire maintains an open understory (Amoroso pers. comm.). It is declining in the Green Swamp due to fire suppression (Amoroso pers. comm.). Given the right conditions, this plant can be aggressive and weedy (Amoroso pers. comm.). This species is also apparently expanding where it has been artificially introduced in Florida (Amoroso pers. comm.). The status of introduced populations in New Jersey is unknown. Surveys by Marj Boyer of the Plant Conservation Program indicated that site occupancy declined by 10% from 1981 to 1993 (Russo 1993). Very little information is available on abundance trends for this species. It is possible that collection has significantly reduced one of the largest populations at Holly Shelter (Schafale pers. comm.).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is endemic to a narrow region entirely within the outer coastal plain of North Carolina and South Carolina, ranging from Pamlico County, North Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010) south to Charleston County, South Carolina (historic population only; Pittman pers. comm.). Roberts and Oosting (1958) concluded that its total range is probably determined by its being exclusively limited to soils having a high water table, an organic hardpan usually not more than 60 cm below the surface, and a pH range of 3.9-4.5. Venus flytraps have been transplanted by well-intentioned but ecologically misguided people to the Pine Barrens of New Jersey (Snyder 1989) and to the Apalachicola National Forest in the Florida panhandle (Clewell 1985, Sorrie 1991). In each instance, a single small population survives, apparently unable to increase appreciably in size. These extra-limital transplants are considered inconsequential to the conservation of the species.

Venus flytrap is currently extant in 11 counties in North Carolina and one county in South Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010, Pittman pers. comm.). Largest concentrations of this species are in Brunswick, Carteret, Onslow, and Pender Counties in North Carolina. This species has been nearly extirpated in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, and persists in the Sandhills of North Carolina only at a few sites in Fort Bragg (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010). A feeble, exotic population is also found in Escambia County, Alabama (Schotz pers. comm.).

Current range: The range of Venus flytrap is quite localized in scattered savannas of the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina and adjacent eastern South Carolina in an approximate landward radius of 100 miles around Wilmington, North Carolina (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010). Currently 68 extant occurrences are known from the following counties in North Carolina (the number of occurrences in parentheses): Bladen (5), Brunswick (21), Carteret (1), Columbus (3), Craven (1), Cumberland (4), Hoke (7), New Hanover (5), Onslow (12), Pender (7), and Sampson (2) (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 2010), and Horry County (4), South Carolina (South Carolina Heritage Trust 1993b).

24 occurrences in North Carolina were not relocated during the most recent surveys, but there are reasons to believe they are still present (the populations may have been difficult to relocate due to fire suppression or vague directions).

Historic range: Dionaea muscipula was first reported from Brunswick County, North Carolina, by Governor Dobbs in 1759 (Roberts and Oosting 1958). In 1958 its reported range extended from Chocowinity, Beaufort County, North Carolina, in the north, to the Santee River, South Carolina, in the south, and westward to the Sandhills region of Moore County, North Carolina (Roberts and Oosting 1958). Radford, et al. (1968), report Venus flytraps from 17 counties in North Carolina (Beaufort, Bladen, Brunswick, Carteret, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Jones, Lenoir, Moore, New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Robeson, and Sampson counties) and three counties in South Carolina (Charleston, Georgetown, and Horry counties). Buchanan (2010) lists it from 18 counties in North Carolina, with the addition of Hoke.

There are 31 known occurrences in North Carolina which are currently considered extirpated or historic. These occurrences were located in the following counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Carteret, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Lenoir, Moore, New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, and Robeson (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program Database 2010). In South Carolina there are 26 occurrences considered extirpated or historic in the following counties: Charleston, Georgetown, and Horry (South Carolina Heritage Trust 1993b). The high number of extirpated occurrences is indicative of the real threats to and continued decline of the species.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic, NC, NJexotic, SC

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Jamaica

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Beaufort (37013), Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047), Craven (37049), Cumberland (37051), Duplin (37061), Hoke (37093), Jones (37103), Lenoir (37107)*, Moore (37125)*, New Hanover (37129), Onslow (37133), Pamlico (37137), Pender (37141), Robeson (37155)*, Sampson (37163)
SC Charleston (45019)*, Georgetown (45043)*, Horry (45051)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Pamlico (03020104)+, Middle Neuse (03020202)+*, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Black (03030006)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lumber (03040203)+*, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Black (03040205)+*, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+*, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+, Santee (03050112)+*, Bulls Bay (03050209)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial, insectivorous, scapose herb; 10 to 30 cm tall (Kral 1983). Rosette leaves spread in all directions from the contracted stem, with broad, flat petioles (leaf stems) which become constricted just below the blades (Kral 1983, Russo 1993). Leaf blades are highly modified and resemble beartraps, with the midrib acting as a hinge and the edges with stout marginal bristles used to trap insects once the tactile hairs near the midrib are activated (Kral 1983, Russo 1993). The upper surfaces of the blades vary in color from green to bright red (Kral 1983). Inflorescences of few to several flowers at the summit of a slender scape; petals are white in color, with prominent green venation (Kral 1983). The seeds are black and lustrous, and are exposed once the mature capsule opens (Kral 1983, Weakley 1996). [JRB]
Technical Description: "Perennial carniverous herb with leaves closely set on a short stem, the petiolar bases dilated and closely overlapping so that the short stem appears somewhat bulbous. Leaf blades hinged lengthwise in the middle, each of the two halves nearly kidney-shaped, the margin of each equipped with conspicuous bristles which interlock when the leaf is closed; petiole usually markedly winged and expanded distally. Inflorescence scapose, 1-3 dm tall, umbeliform-cymose. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, spatulate, about 12 mm long. Stamens 15 (10-20). Ovary superior, 1-locular, style 1, stigma with numerous elongate papillae. Capsule ovoid. Seeds numerous, black and shiny, obovoid, tiny" (Godfrey and Wooten, 1981).
Diagnostic Characteristics: "The outstanding features of the flytrap are the three irritable cilia on the face of each leaf-lobe which transmit the stimulus that causes the paired lobes to snap shut on an insect, and the eyelash-like cilia of the lobes which close together like the fingers when one's hands are folded, thus making sure the victim is securely held" (Small, 1933).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Reproduces by seeds and vegetatively.
Ecology Comments: This is a highly fire-dependent species. Fire return intervals any greater than one or two years result in population crashes after a period of approximately 5 years (Frost pers. comm.). [JRB]

There is a globally rare moth (G1) that specializes on Dionaea (Schafale pers. comm.). [JRB]

Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Savanna
Habitat Comments: Dionaea muscipula occupies distinct habitats in the two regions of the Carolinas (Fall-line Sandhills and Outer Coastal Plain) where it is found.

In the Outer Coastal Plain, where it is more common, Dionaea muscipula occurs in broad ecotonal areas between Pine Savannas or Wet Pine Flatwoods and pocosins (evergreen shrub bogs). These sites are generally flat with wet or moist soils for much of the year. The species rarely occurs in seasonally flooded depressions, although it may occur along the edges of such sites.

In the Sandhills region, it is limited to narrow, moist ecotones between Streamhead Pocosins (linear, evergreen shrub bogs along small creeks and their headwaters) and longleaf pine/scrub oak/wiregrass uplands and along the vegetatively similar ecotones between Sandhill Seeps and longleaf pine uplands. Sandhill Seeps are sphagnous, shrub-and-herb-dominated areas occurring in relatively steep places where local clay soils force seepage water to the surface. Soils in these ecotonal areas are usually highly acidic, loamy sands.

Soils associated with Dionaea sites on the Outer Coastal Plain tracked by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (1993) include Baymeade (Arenic Hapludults), Blaney (Arenic Hapludults), Foreston (Aquic Paleudults), Grifton (Typic Orchraqualfs), Johnston (Cumulic Humaquepts), Kureb (Spodic Quartzipsamments), Leon (Aeric Haplaquods), Murville (Typic Haplaquods), Onslow (Spodic Paleudults), Pactolus (Aquic Quartzipsamments), and Woodington (Typic Paleaquults) (Hudson 1984, Barnhill 1986, North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 1993). The Pine Savanna ecotones that Dionaea muscipula occupies in the Outer Coastal Plain are generally dominated by an open to moderate canopy of Pinus palustris (often with a mixture of Pinus serotina or even Taxodium ascendens), over a dense, species-rich ground layer with grasses, sedges, herbs and low-growing shrubs. Associated species at Dionaea muscipula sites can vary considerably, but graminoids such as Muhlenbergia expansa, Ctenium aromaticum, Sporobolus sp. 1, and Aristida stricta (to a lesser extent) usually dominate. Other common species include Rhexia alifanus, Aletris spp., Zigadenus spp., Polygala spp., orchids, Eupatorium spp., Dichanthelium spp., Xyris caroliniana, and rare plants such as Tofieldia glabra, Solidago pulchra, Oxypolis ternata, and Rhynchospora pallida. Other insectivorous plants that almost always co-occur with flytraps include species of Pinguicula, Sarracenia, and Drosera. Common shrub species include Ilex glabra, Vaccinium crassifolium, Gaylussacia frondosa, Kalmia carolina, Myrica cerifera, and Lyonia mariana (LeBlond 1993). If frequently burned, these ecotones will remain herb-dominated and species-rich. Fire suppression generally leads to shrub and tree invasion and a gradual decline in species diversity.

Ecotones in the Sandhills region are quite similar in species composition to Outer Coastal Plain savanna ecotones, although they are generally much narrower in size. Dionaea muscipula is usually found along the lower, pocosin edges of well-burned ecotones, in areas dominated by a mixture of low shrubs, cane, and a high diversity of herbs. Species counts in these well-burned sites are often impressively high; a 1/100 hectare (10 x 10 meters) plot of a Sandhill Seep ecotone on Fort Bragg yielded over 100 species, one of the highest known species richness counts in temperate North America (Schafale and Weakley 1990). Commonly associated herbs include Aletris farinosa, A. aurea, Andropogon glomeratus, Aristida stricta, Arundinaria tecta, Calamagrostis cinnoides, Calamovilfa brevipilis, Chasmanthium laxum, Ctenium aromaticum, Dichanthelium spp., Drosera spp., Eriocaulon decangulare, Eupatorium pilosum, Juncus trigonocarpus, Lachnocaulon anceps, Lycopodiella spp., Panicum virgatum var. cubense, Platanthera spp., Polygala spp., Pteridium aquilinum var. pseudocaudatum, Rhexia alifanus, R. petiolata, Rhynchospora spp., Sarracenia purpurea, S. rubra, Scleria minor, Solidago stricta, and Xyris spp. Rare plants associated with Dionaea include Lysimachia asperulifolia, Oxypolis ternata, Rhynchospora pallida, R. stenophylla, and Tofieldia glabra. Shrubs such as Lyonia lucida, L. ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Vaccinium corymbosum, Leucothoe racemosa, Gaylussacia frondosa, Clethra alnifolia, Ilex glabra, I. coriacea, and Aronia arbutifolia are also present and will dominate during periods of fire suppression. In SC, one extant population occurs along the ecotone of a sand rim between two Carolina bays (South Carolina Heritage Trust 1993b) In NC, two occurrences are found in similar situations, in the ecotone between a sand rim and a Carolina bay, one each in Brunswick (1982) and Bladen (1981) counties (NCNHP 1993). Dionaea will sometimes colonize disturbed areas, such as rights-of-way and roadsides, if competition is minimized by constant cutting or burning. In these situations, soil and water conditions are very similar to natural occurrences.

Found in association with wet, mineral soils within wet longleaf pine communities: pine savannas, wet pine flatwoods and sandhill seeps (Schafale pers. comm.). Roberts and Oosting (1958) concluded that its range is probably limited by its requirements for a high water table, an organic hardpan under 60cm below the surface, and a pH range of 3.9-4.5 (Russo 1993). This species is typically in full sun with other insectivorous plants (Kral 1983). Most frequently in association with openings in pocosins or in pineland savanna, predominantly with longleaf pine overstory (Kral 1983). Occasionally occurs with pond pine adjacent to bay rims (Pittman pers. comm.). This species also occurs in narrow transitional ecotones between sandhills and pocosins (Schafale pers. comm.). Within these habitats, it can establish and persist along roadsides and in powerline corridors (Schafale pers. comm.), or where heavy logging has taken place adjacent to large seed sources (Kral 1983). This species and its communities depend on regular fires to maintain their open character (Frost pers. comm.; Kral 1983); it will not persist in the shade of pine plantations (Kral 1983).

Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Commercial Importance: Minor cash crop
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG, ESTHETIC
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: The plant is easily propagated in nurseries and greenhouses. Such reproduction methods for commercial purposes should be encouraged and field collection stopped (Cooper 1977).

Prices for this species were found as follows:

North Carolina, botanical garden: $5-7/whole plant, $2/pack of seeds

U.S., internet: $24.50/fluid oz. (from organically grown cultivation) [JRB]

Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Populations of this species tend to be large and not very distinct (Amoroso pers. comm., Pittman pers. comm.). A well burned savanna will have plants throughout (Amoroso pers. comm.).
Separation Barriers: Populations are usually separated by large rivers, pocosins or highways (Amoroso pers. comm.).
Date: 03Jan2000
Author: Boetsch, J.R.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Date: 03Jan2000
Author: Boetsch, J.R.
Notes: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Mary J. Russo (1993); rev. J. Boetsch (1/00); rev. Eric Nielsen (1/00)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Jan2000

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Cooper, J.E., S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderburg (eds.). 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 444 pp.

  • Evert, D.S. 1957. Dionaea transplants in the New Jersey pine barrens. Bartonia 29: 3-4.

  • Gibson, T. C. 2009. Save the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula)! How to generate funds to conserve wild populations. Internet publication available at http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/flytrap/. Dr. Thomas C. Gibson, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, Email: tomgibson_5@hotmail.com.

  • Gibson, T. C. and D. M. Waller. 2009. Research review Evolving Darwin's 'most wonderful' plant: ecological steps to a snap-trap. New Phytologist (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02935.x. www.newphytologist.org.

  • Godfrey, R., and J. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. USFS Tech. Publ. R8-TP 2, Atlanta, GA. 2 Vol. 1305 pp.

  • Morse, L. Memorandum to Jeanette M. Walsh. 16 September 1992. Regarding unusual plants.

  • Proctor, G.R. 1982. More additions to the flora of Jamaica. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 63: 199-315.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Roberts, P.R., and H.J. Oosting. 1958. Responses of Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula) to factors involved in its endemism. Ecological Monographs 28(2):193-218.

  • Russo, M.J. 1993. Element stewardship abstract: Dionaea muscipula. In: Rare and endangered plant survey and natural history inventory for Fort Bragg and Camp Mackall Military Reservations, North Carolina. The North Carolina Nature Conservancy, Carrboro, and North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory of Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Final report by The Nature Conservancy, Sandhills Field Office, December 1993.

  • Weakley, A. S., compiler. 1993. Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program. Raleigh. 79 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1993. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. Draft North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the watch list plant species. Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Dept. Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1996. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of 23 May 1996. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Southern Conservation Science Dept., Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Unpaginated.

  • Wood, C.E., Jr. 1960. The genera of Sarraceniaceae and Droceraceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arboretum 41: 152-163.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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