Dicrostonyx richardsoni - Merriam, 1900
Richardson's Collared Lemming
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dicrostonyx richardsoni Merriam, 1900 (TSN 180332)
French Common Names: lemming de Richardson
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102661
Element Code: AMAFF18060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Cricetidae Dicrostonyx
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dicrostonyx richardsoni
Taxonomic Comments: Taxonomy of Dicrostonyx is complex and unstable. Dicrostonyx richardsoni was regarded as part of a single circumpolar species, D. torquatus, until the 1970s when karyological and breeding studies indicated the possible existence of a superspecies complex among North American Dicrostonyx (Rausch and Rausch 1972, Rausch 1977; see also Krohne 1982). Former subspecies occurring in Canada and Alaska were recognized as separate species based mainly on karyotypes (Rausch and Rausch 1972, Rausch 1977, Krohne 1982, Honacki et al. 1982, Baker et al. 2003). Jarrell and Fredga (1993) and Engstrom (1999) suggested treating D. hudsonius, D. richardsoni, and D. groenlandicus as distinct species (the latter including the other North American Dicrostonyx populations as subspecies), and molecular data (Fedorov and Goropashnaya 1999) supports this taxonomy. Musser and Carleton (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) reviewed these and subsequent studies and recognized eight Dicrostonyx species, six of which (groenlandicus, hudsonius, nelsoni, nunatakensis, richardsoni, and unalascensis) occur in North America. Baker et al. (2003) recognized D. exsul, D. kilangmiutak, and D. rubricatus as species, but Musser and Carleton recognized exsul as a synonym of D. nelsoni, and kilangmiutak and rubricatus were treated as synonyms of D. groenlandicus. Fedorov and Stenseth (2002) followed Fedorov and Goropashnaya (1999) in recognizing three North American Dicrostonyx species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 10Apr2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (19Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Canada Manitoba (S3), Northwest Territories (SU), Nunavut (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: West coast of Hudson Bay to vicinity of the Great Slave Lake, District of MacKenzie, Canada; westward limit of distribution is unknown (Musser and Carleton, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: West coast of Hudson Bay to vicinity of the Great Slave Lake, District of MacKenzie, Canada; westward limit of distribution is unknown (Musser and Carleton, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
Canada MB, NT, NU

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Murid Rodents

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Separate sites separated by less than 1000 meters should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include: wide highways with heavy traffic (subjective determination) and highways with continuous solid barriers that prevent rodent passage; major water bodies, arbitrarily set at those greater than 50 meters across in ice-free areas and those greater than 200 meters wide if frozen regularly.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges may be quite small, but at least some species exhibit good dispersal ability that may take them several kilometers from their natal area (Maier 2002). Peromyscus that have been displaced up to 3 km may return home within a few days (see Maier 2002). Displaced Neotoma fuscipes dispersed up to at least 1.6 km from their release point in five nights (Smith 1965). A male Dicrostonyx richardsoni moved more than 3 kilometers per day several times (Engstrom, in Wilson and Ruff 1999). Some species can traverse significant distances of unsuitable habitat. For example, Peromyscus leucopus may move between wooded areas separated by a deforested agricultural gap of up to at least 2 km (Krohne and Hoch 1999). In New Brunswick, a tagged subadult male Peromyscus maniculatus was captured at locations 1.77 km apart after a period of 2 weeks in September, suggesting that dispersal may extend at least this far (Bowman et al. 1999). In Kansas, individual Peromyscus maniculatus were captured at trap sites up to 1.32 km apart (Rehmeier et al. 2004). Dispersal can play a key role in the population dynamics of murid rodents.

Patterns of genetic (DNA) variation indicate that gene flow can be low among subpopulations of Neotoma magister and that effective dispersal is limited among subpopulations separated by as little as 3 km (Castleberry et al. 2002).

Separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the typical small home range sizes of these mammals and their sometimes considerable dispersal ability and the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Roads, especially divided highways, are major barriers to dispersal in small mammals (Oxley et al. 1974, Wilkins 1982, Garland and Bradley 1984).

Date: 08Mar2005
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Group contains most members of the family Muridae: mice, voles, lemmings, woodrats, etc.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Feb1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  • Banks, E. M., R. J. Brooks, and J. Schnell. 1975. A radiotracking study of home range and activity of the brown lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus). Journal of Mammalogy 56:888-901.

  • Bowman, J. C., M. Edwards, L. S. Sheppard, and G. J. Forbes. 1999. Record distance for a non-homing movement by a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. Canadian Field-Naturalist 113:292-293.

  • Brooks, R. J., and E. M. Banks. 1971. Radio-tracking study of lemming home range. Communications in Behavioral Biology 6:1-5.

  • Castleberry, S., B., T. L. King, P. B. Wood, and W. M. Ford. 2002. Microsatellite DNA analysis of population structure in Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister). Journal of Mammalogy 83:1058-1070.

  • Douglass, R. J. 1977. Population dynamics, home ranges, and habitat associations of the yellow-cheeked vole, Microtus xanthognathus, in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 91:237-47.

  • Engstrom, M. D. 1993. Chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variation in four laboratory populations of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx). Can. J. Zool. 71:42-48.

  • Engstrom, M. D. 1999. Collared lemmings, Dicrostonyx. Pages 658-659 in: Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff (eds.). The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., in association with the American Society of Mammalogists. 750 pages.

  • Fedorov, V. B., and A. V. Goropashnaya. 1999 The importance of ice ages in diversifications of Arctic collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx): evidence from the mitochondrial cytochrome b region. Hereditas 130: 301-307.

  • Fedorov, V. B., and N. C. Stenseth. 2002. Multiple glacial refugia in the North American arctic: inference from phylogeography of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus). Proceedings: Biological Sciences 269(1505):2071-2077.

  • Garland, T., Jr. and W. G. Bradley. 1984. Effects of a highway on Mojave Desert rodent populations. American Midland Naturalist 111:47-56.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Honacki, J. H., K. E. Kinman, and J. W. Koepf (eds.). 1982. Mammal species of the world. Allen Press, Inc. and Assoc. Syst. Coll., Lawrence, Kansas. 694 pp.

  • Jarrell, G. H., and K. Fredga. 1993. How many kinds of lemmings? A taxonomic overview. Pages 45-57 in N. C. Stenseth and R. A. Ims, editors. The biology of lemmings. Linnean Society Symposium Series, No. 15. Academic Press, London. 683 pp.

  • Jike, L., G. O. Batzli, L. L. Geta. 1988. Home ranges of prairie voles as determined by radiotracking and by powdertracking. Journal of Mammalogy 69:183-186.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., D. C. Carter, H. H. Genoways, R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 1986. Revised checklistof North American mammals north of Mexico, 1986. Occas. Papers Mus., Texas Tech Univ., 107:1-22.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Krohne, D. T. 1982. The karyotype of Dicrostonyx hudsonius. Journal of Mammology 63:174-176.

  • Krohne, D. T., and G. A. Hoch. 1999. Demography of Peromyscus leucopus populations on habitat patches: the role of dispersal. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1247-1253.

  • MacMillen, R. E. 1964. Population ecology, water relations and social behavior of a southern California semidesert rodent fauna. University of California Publications in Zoology 71:1-59.

  • Maier, T. J. 2002. Long-distance movements by female white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, in extensive mixed-wood forest. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116:108-111.

  • Musser, G. G., and M. D. Carleton. 1993. Family Muridae. Pages 501-775 In Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. 1206 pp.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Rausch, R. L. 1977. [On the zoogeography of some Beringian mammals.] Pages 162-175 in Sokolov, V. E., ed. Advances in modern theriology. Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow.

  • Rausch, R. L., and V. R. Rausch. 1972. Observations on chromosomes of Dicrostonyx torquatus stevensoni Nelson and chromosome diversity in varying lemmings. Z. Sauget.37:372-384.

  • Rehmeier, R. L., G. A. Kaufman, and D. W. Kaufman. 2004. Long-distance movements of the deer mouse in tallgrass prairie. Journal of Mammalogy 85:562-568.

  • Smith, M. H. 1965. Dispersal capacity of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes. American Midland Naturalist 74:457-463.

  • Storer, T. I., F. C. Evans, and F. G. Palmer. 1944. Some rodent populations in the Sierra Nevada of California. Ecological Monographs 14:166-192.

  • Wilkins, K. T. 1982. Highways as barriers to rodent dispersal. Southwestern Naturalist 27: 459-460.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

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