Dicerandra frutescens - Shinners
Scrub Balm
Other English Common Names: scrub balm
Synonym(s): Dicerandra frutescens var. frutescens ;Dicerandra frutescens ssp. frutescens
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dicerandra frutescens Shinners (TSN 196110)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.1013430
Element Code: PDLAM0F022
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Dicerandra
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Huck, R.B. 2001. Two new infraspecific taxa in Florida Dicerandra (Labiatae). Novon 11(4): 417-419.
Concept Reference Code: A01HUC01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dicerandra frutescens ssp. frutescens
Taxonomic Comments: This is the record for Dicerandra frutescens in the narrow sense (not including D. modesta).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Dec2017
Global Status Last Changed: 06Dec2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A very narrow Florida endemic known only from Highlands County. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory contains 12 occurrence records in its database. The species is threatened by rapid residential, commercial, and agricultural development on and around the Central Ridge.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE
Comments on USESA: Dicerandra frutescens was listed endangered by USFWS on November 1, 1985. As of 4/2018, question pending to USFWS about whether the concept with status is Dicerandra frutescens in the broad sense (which would include D. modesta) or D. frutescens in the narrow sense (as in this element). Map on USFWS species profile suggests that it is D. frutescens in the broad sense that has status since it includes both Highlands and Polk counties. (D. frutescens s.s. is found only in Highlands County, while D. modesta is found only in Polk County.)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Dicerandra frutescens is endemic to a very limited portion of the Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, and is found at four localities. The mint occurs at Archbold Biological Station; in the Sun 'n' Lakes Estates subdivision east of US highway 27 and southeast of the town of Lake Placid; at YMCA Camp Florida on the west side of Grassy Lake southeast of the town of Lake Placid; and on a sand ridge along the northwest shore of Lake Placid. All four of these areas are native vegetation which are surrounded by agricultural and residential areas.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: 15 occurrences recorded as of 2013.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Six occurrences with good viability

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The destruction of remaining habitat is the primary threat to the existence of the remaining mints. In Highlands County, 74.4 percent of the xeric vegetation (scrubs, scrubby flatwoods, and sandhills) present before settlement had been destroyed or disturbed by 1981. This is due to the development of residential subdivisions and citrus groves (Peroni and Abrahamson 1985). The species thrives on bare open sand, but also is found in moderate shade. The pollinators, however, which are necessary for reproduction, are attracted to open, sunny sites (Huck pers. comm. to USFWS 1986). There is no apparent disease or predation threatening the species.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: The populations at the Archbold Biological station seem to be stable and are not decreasing, but the status of populations can change rapidly.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Persists and perhaps increases after soil disturbance.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Dicerandra frutescens is endemic to a very limited portion of the Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, and is found at four localities. The mint occurs at Archbold Biological Station; in the Sun 'n' Lakes Estates subdivision east of US highway 27 and southeast of the town of Lake Placid; at YMCA Camp Florida on the west side of Grassy Lake southeast of the town of Lake Placid; and on a sand ridge along the northwest shore of Lake Placid. All four of these areas are native vegetation which are surrounded by agricultural and residential areas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Highlands (12055)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Kissimmee (03090101)+, Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A dense or straggly, low, aromatic, woody shrub reaching 5 dm in height, with many elongate branches ascending from a deep, stout taproot. Leaves are about 1 cm long. Flowers are borne in pairs on the upper portion of the twigs. Flowers are white to yellowish-white with small purple dots. They are internally hairy. (Based on Ward 1979.)
Technical Description: Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae) is a low, aromatic, woody shrub, that grows to 5 dm tall with many ascending branches. The numerous leaves are about 1 cm long, and are narrowly oblong with entire margins and obtuse tips. They are closely covered with conspicuous sunken glands. The leaves are borne opposite one another on the twigs, with usually 2 smaller leaves at each node. The flowers are borne in pairs, one in the axil of each larger leaf on the upper portion of the twigs. The calyx is bilateral, with the 2 lower lobes somewhat longer and more acuminate. The body of the calyx is glandular dotted, and the calyx lobes are white. The corolla extends about 1 cm beyond the calyx. It is bilateral and is white with small purple dots. The stamens are long and exserted. Each half of the anther is terminated by a conspicuous filamentous horn almost twice the length of the anther itself. The fruits are 4 small nutlets.
Diagnostic Characteristics: The most striking feature of this plant, upon first encountering it in the field, is the very powerful minty odor with which it releases into the surrounding atmosphere. The crushed plant is even more strongly aromatic. The source of this odor appears to be the small glands with which the foliage and parts of the flower are covered.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: D. frutescens reproduces entirely by seed and insects must trigger the spurred anthers in order for pollen to be released (Huck 1984).
Ecology Comments: Clear-cutting of the sand pine overstory affects the species favorably, as probably does fire, as both remove shade and competing vegetation. The fact that plants are often abundant along plowed firelanes, fencerows, and roadbanks, is an indication that it spreads readily into such exposed sites. It is not, however, found in areas cleared for pasture, or areas in which wholesale site preparation has taken place.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Habitat is scrub and sandhills (Wunderlin and Hansen 2011).  Well-drained soils of scrub or sandhill vegetation. Locally abundant in and around the sand pine-evergreen oak scrub, where it may occur in the low shrub layer or in open stands, clearings, or adjacent sandy places. The tree layer is comprised of Pinus clausa. The shrub layer is comprised of Persea humilus, Carya floridana, Quercus chapmanii, and Q. geminata. Widely spaced species like Asimina obovata, Bumelia tenax, Ceratiola ericoides, Palafoxia feayi, Sabal etonia, and Ximenia americana also occur in the shrub layer. The herbaceous layer may include various bunchgrasses in the genera Panicum, Andropogon, and Aristida, and other species adapted to xeric soils such as Lechea deckertii, Nolina brittoniana, Polygonella myriophylla, Liatris tenuifolia, Paronychia patula, Petalostemun feayi, Galactia volubilis, and Sisyrinchium solstitiale.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability Not yet assessed
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Apr1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: KARL BERTRAM & RONALD MYERS, TALL TIMBERS RESEARCH STATION, TALLAHASSEE, FL, rev. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (2013)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Sep1988
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): K. BERTRAM & R. MYERS, TALL TIMBERS RES STA, TALLAHASSEE, FL 9/88; REV M. E. STOVER, TNC-HO 2/95

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Huck, R.B. 2001. Two new infraspecific taxa in Florida Dicerandra (Labiatae). Novon 11(4): 417-419.

  • Huck, R.B. 2008. Dicerandra modesta (Lamiaceae): Raise in rank for a disjunct perennial in a new coastal clade in Florida. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(2): 1163-1164.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Scrub Mint (Dicerandra frutescens) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, Florida.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B. 2009. Keys to the flora of Florida: 22, Dicerandra (Labiatae). Phytologia 91(2): 270-276.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2011. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, 3rd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 800 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.