Dianthus armeria - L.
Deptford Pink
Other English Common Names: Deptford-pink
Other Common Names: Deptford pink
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dianthus armeria L. (TSN 20276)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149523
Element Code: PDCAR08010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pink Family
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Dianthus
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dianthus armeria
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (26Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, HIexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Although Dianthus armeria has been reported throughout the U.S., it generally colonizes pastures, fields, lawns, trail edges, and sometimes open and/or disturbed woods. No evidence could be found that it has invaded intact natural areas and it has biological characteristics such as being an annual/biennial, low seed production, slender taproot, and no vegetative spread that would suggest it would not be a strong competitor in an intact natural area.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 02Jul2007
Evaluator: Davis, G.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Dianthus armeria is native to Europe and western Asia (USDA GRIN 2007). It has declined severely in Britain over the past 60 years and is considered endangered there (Plantlife International 2007).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Dianthus armeria occurs in fields, roadsides, pastures (Weakley 2007 draft), and disturbed areas (Hickman 1993). Occurs in open woods, roadsides, railroads, waste ground, pastures, fields throughout Missouri (Tenaglia 2007).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Dianthus armeria has been reported in native plant habitat, but usually along trails or in disturbed areas and not in intact native habitat (for example, Fuentes et al. 2006).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria is a small annual or biennial, usually described as occurring along trails or in fields; not as a large part of the herb layer. It is unlikely that it has a large impact on ecosystem processes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria in its native habitat can compete with taller vegetation once it is established but it appears to require an opening to be successful (Joint Nature Conservation Committee 2007) and there is no indication in North America that it becomes a major competitor in an intact community.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There is no indication that this species signficantly alters community composition.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: There are no known reports of this species having a disproportionate impact on any specific native species.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria has so far only been reported from pastures, fields, and trail edges; there are no known reports of the species invading intact native communities.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Dianthus armeria is documented as occurring in every state in the U.S. except Alaska, North Dakota, and Arizona; it appears to be most abundant in the northeast, mid-Atlantic and central U.S. where there are collections from most counties (USDA PLANTS 2007 and Kartesz, unpublished distribution data 2006).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No reports were found of Dianthus armeria having a negative impact on biodiversity; most documents listed it as a species to watch. For example, in Missouri, where D. armeria occurs throughout the state, it is considered "Category B" which includes species that are occasional invaders with low levels of impact on native Missouri plant communities (Missouri Exotic Pest Plant Council 2007). However, it is on the Kentucky EPPC Invasive Exotic Plant List (Bugwood Network et al. 2007).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Since the range of Dianthus armeria is so expansive, it is presumed to occur in half or more ecological regions in the U.S.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria seems to be limited to open habitats such as fields, pastures, lawns, roadsides, and open woods.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Within the already occupied range (throughout the U.S.), Dianthus armeria is probably spreading to new sites.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Dianthus armeria already occupies a large percentage of the U.S., however there are places within the range that can still be occupied (e.g., Native Plant Society of New Jersey 2007).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Unknown
Comments: No information could be found on how Dianthus seeds are dispersed however, based on the biology of other Dianthus species, there is nothing to suggest that seeds move very far from the parent plant.

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: The abundance of Dianthus armeria within its current range is probably increasing, but not at a high rate.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Insignificant
Comments: There is no evidence that Dianthus armeria colonizes intact natural areas.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Dianthus armeria is widely cultivated and naturalized outside its native range (USDA ARS 2007) however, there is no evidence that it has invaded other types of habitats than those it is known from in its native range and the U.S.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Dianthus armeria is an annual/biennial (Hickman 1993). In its native habitat, a normal sized plant produces about 400 seeds; thought to require open conditions for success; able to compete with taller vegetation once established (Joint Nature Conservation Committee 2007). Appears to produce a long-lived seedbank (Plantlife International 2007).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Information on the control of Dianthus armeria could not be found, however, given its biology (annual/biennial, slender taproot, taking root only on bare/open soil) it is likely that this species would not be difficult to control.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance/Insignificant

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria could probably be controlled with little effect on intact natural communities.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dianthus armeria usually colonizes open, disturbed areas that are accessible.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Bugwood Network, USDA Forest Service, and USDA APHIS PPQ. 2007. Invasive Species website. Available online at: http://www.invasive.org/ Accessed 2007.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.D. Straley, D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1998. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 2, Dicotyledons (Balsaminaceae through Cucurbitaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For. Res. Program. 401pp.

  • Fuentes, T.L., L.L. Potash, A. Risvold, K. Ward, R.D. Lesher, and J.A. Henderson. 2006. Non-native plants on the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Presentation at Meeting the Challenge: Invasive Plants in PNW Ecosystems at University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture, Seattle, Washington, Sept. 2006. Available online: http://www.ruraltech.org/video/2006/invasive_plants

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 2007. Species Action Plan for Deptford Pink (Dianthus armeria). Part of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Accessed online, June 25, 2007, at http://www.ukbap.org.uk/species.aspx

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Missouri Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2007. Missouri Exotic Pest Plants. A list of non-native plants that threaten Missouri's native biodiversity. Available online through the Missouri Botanical Garden at: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/mepp/welcome.shtml Accessed 2007.

  • Plantlife International. 2007. Dianthus armeria species dossier (fact sheet describing the species in its native habitat). Originally written by Phil Wilson in 2003, edited by Plantlife International, last updated Feb. 2007. Available online: http://www.plantlife.org.uk/uk/assets/saving-species/saving-species-dossier/Dianthus_armeria_dossier.pdf Accessed July 2007.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Tenaglia, D. 2007. The Missouri Flora Website. Online. Available: http://www.missouriplants.com/ (Accessed 2007).

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2007 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Online. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2007).

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2007.

  • University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium. No date. Plants of Wisconsin. Available: http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/index.html. (Accessed 2007).

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 1992. Catalog of The Colorado Flora: A Biodiversity Baseline. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO.

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