Dianthus deltoides - L.
Maiden Pink
Other Common Names: maiden pink
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dianthus deltoides L. (TSN 20278)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134811
Element Code: PDCAR08040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pink Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Dianthus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dianthus deltoides
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (22Mar1994)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Maine (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, ILexotic, KSexotic, MA, MEexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, PAexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Dianthus deltoides does appear somewhat aggressive in a garden setting where it self-seeds and forms mats by spreading from rhizomes; however, it has not been reported in intact natural areas and in the disturbed wetlands or wetland edges where it has been reported it has been removed easily and has not been observed to spread rapidly or impact the community significantly.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low
I-Rank Review Date: 12Sep2007
Evaluator: Davis, G.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Dianthus deltoides is native to temperate and tropical Asia and Europe (USDA ARS 2007).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: According to information in CalFlora (2007), Dianthus deltoides is naturalized in the wild.

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In California, Dianthus deltoides occurs in wet meadows and disturbed areas (Hickman 1993). In the southeastern U.S., it is cultivated as an ornamental and rarely escapes into adjacent areas (Weakley 2007 draft). However, most references to this species list it as occurring in pastures and waste places, not natural areas.

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There is no information to suggest that Dianthus deltoides impacts ecosystem processes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: It is possible that Dianthus deltoides could impact the herbaceous layer of vegetation since it is a mat forming species, however, there are no reports in the literature that it has done this in an intact community.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: It is possible that Dianthus deltoides could impact the composition in the herbaceous layer of vegetation since it is a mat forming species, however, it is unlikely that it would completely replace other species. Additionally, there are no reports in the literature that it has changed the composition in an intact community.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There are no reports that Dianthus deltoides has had a significant impact on any specific native species.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There is no evidence that Dianthus deloides has impacted a rare or high quality natural community.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Dianthus deltoides has been reported outside of cultivation throughout the northwestern U.S. and California, across many central and midwestern states, throughout the northeast and into the mid-Atlantic (Kartesz, unpublished data). It has also been reported for Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program and USDA 2006).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No reports could be found of Dianthus deltoides having a negative impact on biodiversity.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Dianthus deltoides appears to be reported in at least 40% of TNC Ecoregions.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: In California, Dianthus deltoides occurs in wet meadows and disturbed areas (Hickman 1993). It has also been reported in wetlands in the eastern U.S. Reports are usually from open areas such as pastures, fields, and meadows.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: There is no evidence that the range of Dianthes deltoides is expanding quickly. Many records could be similar to the one in Alaska where, as of 2007, it has been reported in only one location over a small area near a transfer station where it was removed by hand and has not been reported since (pers. comm. Julia Lenz, Alaska Natural Heritage Program).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Dianthus deltoides has been reported in about half of U.S. states; it has the potential to spread to the other half.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Dianthus deltoides can self-seed but there are no reports of long distance disperal of seeds.

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance
Comments: There are no reports that coverage of Dianthus deltoides is expanding rapidly.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: There are no reports of this species establishing in intact natural areas, rather it occasionally spreads into open areas adjacent to human disturbed places.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Dianthus deltoides was recognized as naturalized in New Zealand as of 1953 but has not yet been classified as to its threat to native plants (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network 2007). It is also reported to occur in Canada in similar habitats as the U.S., but not noted as a particular threat. Otherwise, no information could be found to suggest that this species is a problems species in other countries.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Dianthes deltoides is a perennial which spreads by slender rhizomes (Hickman 1993). Gardening websites describe the species as an "aggresive" which spreads by self-seeding.

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Low significance
Comments: It appears that the species can be hand-pulled from colonized areas and is unlikely to return.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance
Comments: Pulling tufts of this species could result in patches of open ground which could allow other exotics to invade.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Most reports have been in open areas near human habitation which are not difficult to access.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alaska Natural Heritage Program, UAA and USDA, Forest Service, State and Private Forestry. Nov. 2006. Non-Native Plants of Alaska. Available online: http://akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu/ Accessed 2007.

  • CalFlora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. 2007. Berkeley, California: The CalFlora Database [web application]. Available: http://www.calflora.org/. (Accessed 2007)

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. 2007. Exotic plant life and weeds. Online. Available: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/exotic_plant_life_and_weeds/index.asp (Accessed 2007)

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2007 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Online. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2007).

  • Weakley, A.S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 11 January 2007. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. [http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2007)]

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