Delphinium luteum - Heller
Yellow Larkspur
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Delphinium luteum Heller (TSN 18475)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157718
Element Code: PDRAN0B0Z0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buttercup Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Delphinium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Delphinium luteum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Apr2017
Global Status Last Changed: 22Oct1986
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Known only from coastal Sonoma County and Marin County, California. Historical populations have been extirpated and the available habitat greatly diminished. Threats to this species include development, over collection, road maintenance including widening, sheep grazing, fire suppression, and hybridization with other Delphinium species. In 2005 only about 200 individuals were suspected to be persisting. Since this species is known from such small numbers and few populations it is also threatened by natural events such as unseasonal fires, drought, or disease that could lead to extinction.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (26Jan2000)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This plant is known from only a few occurrences in Marin and Sonoma Counties, California. The range extent is calculated as approx. 400 sq mi.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: An optimistic estimate of acreage for this plant would be about 200 acres.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Only 12 occurrences of this species are known historically of which 6 were known extant as of the early 1980s (USFWS 2003). 5 presumed extant May 2005.

Population Size Comments: Only about 200 individuals of this species are suspected to be persisting as of 2005 (CNDDB).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are only about three good occurrences: the type location at Larkspur Rock with approx. 55 plants, Larkspur Hill with perhaps 12 plants, and the Estero de San Antonio site with 134 plants. The first two are in Sonoma Co, the Estero site is in Marin Co.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Delphinium luteum is known from approximately 200 individuals total, in three drainages two in Marin County and one in Sonoma County. The populations are known to experience the following anthropogenic threats: development, over collection, road widening, inadequate management of grazing sheep, and fire suppression (USFWS 2003). This species is also threatened by hybridization with other Delphinium species. Since this species is known from a narrow range and few populations are extant, it is susceptible to natural events such as unseasonal fire, drought, disease or other natural occurrences (USFWS 2003).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Grazing and home development threaten sites in the short term.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: If the 7 historical and extirpated sites are truly gone, this represents a 58% decline over the past 100 yrs.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Due to its small population size, low population number and apparently low repreductive rate, this plant is pretty vulnerable.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species requires and grows in coastal prairie and coastal scrub areas with typically no overstory. It also tends to grow on steep slopes which have had some ground disturbance such as landslides (USFWS 2003).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This plant is known from only a few occurrences in Marin and Sonoma Counties, California. The range extent is calculated as approx. 400 sq mi.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Marin (06041), Sonoma (06097)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Gualala-Salmon (18010109)+, Russian (18010110)+*, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+*, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, up to 5.5 dm tall. Leaves are mostly basal, shallowly lobed, and somewhat fleshy. Flowers (March-May) are bright yellow.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Rocky places within coastal scrub and coastal prairie communities.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11May2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K., rev. L. Oliver 2004; rev. R. Bittman 5/2005

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designation of Critical Habitat for two Larkspurs from Coastal Northern California. March 18, 2003. Federal Register 68: 12834-12863.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Proposed endangered status for two larkspurs from coastal northern California. Federal Register 62(118): 33383-33387.

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