Daucus carota - L.
Wild Carrot
Other English Common Names: Queen Anne's-lace
Other Common Names: Queen Anne's lace
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Daucus carota L. (TSN 29477)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141876
Element Code: PDAPI0X010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Carrot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Apiales Apiaceae Daucus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Daucus carota
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (21Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Introduced and naturalized from Europe, Daucus carota inhabits dry fields and waste places at low altitudes throughout the northern United State from Vermont to Virginia west to Washington and California and north into Canada (Fernald 1951).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Daucus carota populations have a large proportion of annuals under favorable conditions and low density. At high densities intraspecific competition causes plants to become less vigorous, flower late, and set fewer seeds. Flowering may be delayed to a third or fourth season if conditions are unfavorable (Dale 1974). Attacks by the nymphal stage of the plant bug, Lygus spp., on the seed destroys the seed embryo. Roots are eaten by carrot rust fly larvae (Psila rosae), and lesion nematode adults and larvae (Protyleachus spp.), and the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). The aster yellow fungus, a mycoplasm transmitted mainly by leaf hoppers (Macrostelos) can damage 25-90% of a wild carrot patch (Dale 1974).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Introduced and naturalized from Europe, Daucus carota inhabits dry fields and waste places at low altitudes throughout the northern United State from Vermont to Virginia west to Washington and California and north into Canada (Fernald 1951).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada BCexotic, LBexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Daucus carota is a monocarpic perennial herb and a member of the parsley family (Umbelliferae, Fernald 1951; Ammiaceae, Rydberg 1971).
Technical Description: Stem is bristly, .3-1.16 m high, with pinnately decompound leaves. Leaflets are lanceolate and acute to cuspidate. The umbel is 6-10 cm broad, compound with numerous rays, white or pink flowers, often with a large dark purple flower in the center. The characteristic odor of carrot is apparent when any part of the plant is crushed (Dale 1974, Fernald 1951, Rydberg 1971).
Diagnostic Characteristics: A similar umbellifer, Carum carvi (caraway), is distinguished from D. carota by small umbellets that are separate from each other; inconspicuous, narrow bracts below the umbel; ribbed seeds without bristles that give the odor of caraway when crushed; and glabrous leaves and flower stalks.
Reproduction Comments: The following comes from Dale (1974). Daucus carota is protandrous; on an individual flower, the gynoecium (egg) is still immature when the pollen is released. Long filaments can facilitate self-fertilization of adjacent flowers when insect pollination fails. Seeds of the terminal, primary umbel mature first, are largest, have the highest viability, and have two to three times the number of seeds as do subsequent umbels. The umbel dries as it matures and breaks open, scattering the seeds. Flowers appear from May through October, and seeds mature and are released from mid-summer to mid-winter. The seeds have barbs, which promote dispersal by animals and wind (Gross and Werner 1982). There is no evidence for vegetative reproduction.
Habitat Comments: It is often found on calcareous soil, but not restricted to it. It apparently prefers fine-particled soil and a high nutrient status, but endures a wide range of conditions (Dale 1974). Ahrenhoerster (pers. comm.) suggested that it may be more persistent on heavy soils with a good clay content. Gross and Werner (1982) stated that D. carota normally does not occur on newly abandoned fields because seeds do not survive for more than 1-2 years and are not often present in a newly disturbed area. Once dispersed to an area, the seedlings can emerge and survive in several types of ground cover, including those with thick vegetation. It is commonly found in fields 4-7 years after abandonment (Gross and Werner 1982).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Daucus carota is not usually a high-priority for management, but it can be persistent or require active management on heavy soils with a good clay content. Control is achieved by hand-pulling or mowing close to the ground before seed set. On lighter sandy soils it may persist for a few years on recovering prairies but tends to decline on its own as the native grasses and forbs become established.
Species Impacts: Daucus carota invades open waste ground, competing for resources with native grasses and forbs. It is a threat to recovering grasslands and prairies where it occurs because it matures faster and grows larger than many native species. It tends to come up once prescribed burning is begun on a prairie restoration site and can be persistent on soils with a good clay content.
Management Requirements: Daucus carota can be controlled along paths or in small patches by hand-pulling or mowing in mid-to-late summer before seed set. It is an early successional invader, but does not appear to significantly inhibit the establishment and recovery of native prairie species. Abundance in sandy soil generally declines on its own as natives become reestablished (Huffman, pers. comm.). It is more persistent in soils with a good clay content, and active management may be necessary in such areas (Ahrenhoerster, pers. comm.). It is particularly troublesome when it occurs on railroad and highway rights-of-way with heavy soils where frequent mowing keeps the area bare and, since incorrectly timed, simply allows for germination or scatters seeds. Ahrenhoerster (pers. comm.) recommended hand-pulling or mowing close to the ground in the first year of growth when plants are 7-10 inches high.
Monitoring Requirements: Daucus carota should be monitored to determine if active control measures are necessary. D. carota is easily observed in the field, especially when in flower.

Management Programs: On the Kitty Todd Nature Preserve in Ohio, Daucus carota was abundant in 1985, on relatively bare soil of a field abandoned from cultivation just two years before. Mowing was considered, but by 1987, abundance had significantly decreased on its own. Contact: Mary Huffman, Manager and Research Associate, Kitty Todd Nature Preserve, 10270 Old State Line Rd., Swanton, OH 43558. 419-867-0619.

Daucus carota is more persistent on the heavier soils of southeastern Wisconsin. Ahrenhoerster (pers. comm.) recommended hand-pulling or mowing close to the ground in the first year of growth when plants are 7-10 inches high. Contact: Bob Ahrenhoerster, P.O. Box 83, Northlake, WI 53064. 414-673-5878.

Management Research Needs: The persistence of Daucus in prairies is apparently unknown. How well does it compete with native species for available resources? Is it a concern on good quality prairies? Is active management, other than encouraging good recovery of the native community, required? How does fire affect Daucus, and can prescribed burns enhance or deter its growth?
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This monocarpic perennial herb persists in recovering grasslands and prairies, but declines on its own sometimes. Also persistent in heavy soils with good clay content. Management needs are minimal.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 12Apr2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Europe (Eckardt 1987).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Threatens recovering grasslands and prairies (Eckardt 1987).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance
Comments: Threatens recovering grasslands and prairies because it matures faster and grows larger than many native species there. It tends to come up once prescribed burning is begun to restore a prairie. Also competes for resources with native grasses and forbs in open waste grounds. Tends to be persistent on heavy soils with a good clay content and in recovering prairies. (Eckardt 1987)

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Established outside of cultivation in all the lower 48 states in the US (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Moderate significance
Comments: Impacts to biodiversity mainly in areas with recovering prairies and grasslands (Eckardt 1987).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: At least in 35 TNC ecoregions (Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Inhabits dry fields and waste places at low altitudes throughout the northern United States. Commonly found in fields 4-7 years after abandonment. Is a threat to recovering grasslands and prairies because it matures faster and grows larger than many native species there. It tends to come up once prescribed burning is begun to restore a prairie. (Eckardt 1987).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance
Comments: Already in most states in the US.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Insignificant
Comments: Often found on calcareious soil but not restricted to it. Prefers fine-particled soil and a high nutrient status, but endures a wide range of conditions. (Eckardt 1987) Already in most of the US.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: The seeds are dispersed by animals and wind (Eckardt 1987).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Persists in recovering grasslands and prairies. Also persistent in heavy soils with good clay content. (Eckardt 1987)

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Often not present in a newly disturbed area (Eckardt 1987).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Not ranked

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Insignificant
Comments: No evidence of vegetative reproduction (Eckardt 1987).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Not usually a high priority for management, but can be persistent or require active management on heavy soils with a good clay content. Control is achieved by hand-pulling or mowing close to the ground before seed set. On lighter sand soils it may persist for a few years on recovering prairies but tends to decline on its own as the native grasses and forbs become established. (Eckardt 1987)

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Insignificant
Comments: May not need any active management.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Insignificant
Comments: May not need any active management.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Insignificant
Comments: Recovering prairies are usually accessible.
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Aug1987
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Nancy Eckardt
Management Information Edition Date: 28Aug1987
Management Information Edition Author: NANCY ECKARDT
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Aug1987
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nancy Eckardt

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Dale, H. M. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds. 5. Daucus carota. Can. J. Plant Sci. 54: 673-685.

  • Eckardt, N. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for Daucus carota, Wild Carrot. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/dauccar.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gross, K. L., and P. A. Werner. 1982. Colonizing abilities of "biennial" plant species in relation to ground cover: Implications for their distributions in a successful sere. Ecology 63(4):921-931.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Rydberg, P. A. 1971. Flora of the prairies and plains of central North America. Dover Publications, N.Y. 503 pp. 2 vol.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

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