Dalea foliosa - (Gray) Barneby
Leafy Prairie-clover
Other Common Names: leafy prairie clover
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dalea foliosa (Gray) Barneby (TSN 26615)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158233
Element Code: PDFAB1A0K0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Dalea
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dalea foliosa
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 28Mar1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Since this species was first described, known occurrences have declined due to habitat destruction and alteration due to commercial and industrial development, overgrazing, and lack of fire. There are approximately 60 extant occurrences presently recorded, but about 40 occurrences are of poor or very poor quality. There are currently known extant occurrences in 3 states: 49 in Tennessee, 3 in Alabama, and 10 in Illinois. In Tennessee, 8 occurrences are ranked as good or excellent. Even when protected on public or private conservation lands, populations will remain threatened by lack of fire and the resulting succession of woody vegetation if management to keep sites open is not implemented. Due to continuing land use change, the species as a whole is highly threatened by continued loss of habitat (land use change is particularly rapid in the Central Basin of Tennessee, especially so in Davidson, Rutherford, and Wilson counties). While more populations may be discovered, most will probably be marginal ones. In Tennessee, many sites are gravely threatened by exotic shrubs, particularly Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), and Eurasian bush-honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Illinois (S1), Tennessee (S2S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (01May1991)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mesic dolomite river-terrace prairies of northeastern Illinois, Middle Tennessee Limestone Glades, northern Alabama Limestone Glades. In Tennessee, occurs on only 13 USGS 7.5' quads in seven counties of the Central Basin.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are approximately 60 extant occurrences presently recorded, but about 25 occurrences are of poor or very poor quality. There are currently known extant occurrences in 3 states: 50 in Tennessee, 4 in Alabama, and 8 in Illinois. In Tennessee, only 10 occurrences are ranked as good or excellent (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2012). The Tennessee records occur on only 13 USGS 7.5' quads in 7 counties of the Central Basin.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Not all EOs have ranks and it seems that some ranked E could be ranked A or B, representing good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Long-term survival is fair to poor unless more sites can be maintained with mowing or ecological burning. Principal threats include lack of fire and the resulting succession of woody vegetation; land use change and loss of habitat; invasion by exotic shrubs such as Chinese privet, sericea lespedeza, exotic fescues and Eurasian bush-honeysuckle; and commercial and industrial development.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Has declined considerably in past, may be relatively stable now.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Declined by over 45% from historical occurrences due to the destruction of habitat, overgrazing, and habitat loss from encroachment by woody plants (Thompson et al. 2006).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vulnerable to effects of woody plant succession, this exacerbated by the presence of woody exotic species.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Mesic dolomite river-terrace prairies of northeastern Illinois, Middle Tennessee Limestone Glades, northern Alabama Limestone Glades. In Tennessee, occurs on only 13 USGS 7.5' quads in seven counties of the Central Basin.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, IL, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Franklin (01059), Jefferson (01073)*, Lawrence (01079), Morgan (01103)
IL Champaign (17019), Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Will (17197)
TN Bedford (47003), Davidson (47037), Knox (47093)*, Marshall (47117), Maury (47119), Rutherford (47149), Sumner (47165)*, Williamson (47187), Wilson (47189)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Locust (03160111)+*
05 Vermilion (05120109)+, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+*, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+*, Stones (05130203)+, Harpeth (05130204)+
06 Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+
07 Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A stout perennial herb, 2-8 dm tall, with several stems arising from a hardened root crown. Dense spikes of small purple flowers appear most abundantly from late July to early August, but may continue to bloom sporadically into September.
Technical Description: A glabrous, stout perennial herb, 2-8 dm tall, with several stems arising from a hardened root crown. Leaves are alternate, with odd-pinnate leaflets 5-13 mm long which are glandular-punctate beneath. Dense, short-pedunculate conic-cylindric spicate heads bear small lavender-purple flowers most abundantly from late July to early August, but this may continue sporadically into September. The flowers are subtended by lance-ovate, long-acuminate bracts and have exerted anthers with pale orange pollen.
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Occurs in Tennessee and Alabama in open, thin-soiled limestone glades and limestone barrens. In Tennessee, the plants occur on wet calcareous barrens and moist prairies or cedar glades, usually near a stream or where some seepage from limestone provides seasonal moisture. Associates in these habitats are rose-pink (Sabatia angularis), and black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba). The species is disjunct in Illinois, where it is restricted to thin-soiled (< 4.5 dm), wet or moist, open dolomite prairies on river terraces in the northeastern part of the state. The plants require full sun and low competition for optimum growth and reproduction; periodic fire is needed to maintain these conditions.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Seek long term protection for exceptional sites. Review most critical threats and consider the feasibility of their removal and how their removal will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other species of interest. Sites should be kept free of woody vegetation, especially exotic species. If possible, some ecological burning should be part of this woody species control program. Ecological burns should ideally involve large enough areas so that more than the immediately known area of the population is included. Burning and woody species control have the potential to expand population sizes by releasing long-dormant seeds from the seed-bank through heat-scarification and/or increased light levels at the ground surface. Natural fire in the Tennessee limestone glade system probably occurred in the Summer or Fall. Mowing or bush hogging can be an management alternative to burning.
Monitoring Requirements: Continue the collection of annual count based data and perform count-based PVA. Count based PVA has been shown to perform reasonably well at estimating population growth rates and predicting extinction risk. Our results suggest that when collecting count based data for rare plants, classifying at least three stages (i.e., seedling, adults nonflowering and adults flowering) will be beneficial and the effort will be minimal. This additional data can be further used in conjunction with other data sets, such as weather data, to assist in the identification of management targets (Molano-Flores and Bell 2012).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Jun2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Milo Pyne, SERO (1996), rev. K. Crowley, rev. C. Nordman (2012), rev. A. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 29Mar2012
Management Information Edition Author: Nordman, C. (2012), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baskin, J.M. and C. Candle. 1967. PETALOSTEMON FOLIOSUS in Alabama. Rhodora 69:383-384.

  • Baskin, J.M. and C.C. Baskin. 1973. The past and present geographical distribution of PETALOSTEMON FOLIOSUS and notes on its ecology. Rhodora 75:132-140.

  • DeMauro, M.M., and M.L. Bowles. 1994. Agency draft recovery plan for Dalea foliosa (leafy prairie clover) (Gray) Barneby. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA.

  • Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2. Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 258 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Molano-Flores, B. and T.J. Bell. 2012. Projected population dynamics for a federally endangered plant under different climate change emission scenarios. Biological Conservation 145: 130-138.

  • Pyne, M. 1996. Inventory for Dalea foliosa (A. Gray) Barneby [Leafy prairie-clover] in the Central Basin of Tennessee. Report to U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA. 18 pp + maps.

  • Pyne, M. 1996. Inventory for Dalea foliosa (A. Gray) Barneby [leafy prairie-clover] in the Central Basin of Tennessee. Unpublished. Tennessee Heritage Program report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4, Atlanta, Georgia.

  • Pyne, M., M. Gay, and A. Shea. 1995. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 5. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Rickett, H.W. 1967. Wild flowers of the United States. Volume Two. The southeastern states. A publication of the New York Botanical Garden. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 688p.

  • Smith, D.K. and B.E. Wofford. 1980a. Status report on Petalostemum foliosum Gray. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 31p.

  • Thompson, J.N., Walck, J.L., Hidayati, S.N., 2006. Microhabitat requirements of the federally endangered Dalea foliosa, with recommendations on establishment of new populations. Castanea 71: 94-104.

  • Wemple, D.K. 1970. Revision of the genus PETALOSTEMON (Leguminosae). Iowa State J. Sci. 45:16-91.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.