Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana - (Rydb.) Barneby
Florida Prairie-clover
Other English Common Names: Cartagena Prairieclover, Florida Prairie Clover, Florida Prairieclover
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana (Rydb.) Barneby (TSN 527659)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142674
Element Code: PDFAB1A095
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Dalea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Aug2008
Global Status Last Changed: 01Jun1999
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Restricted to southern Florida. Fewer than ten populations extant and several extirpated. Most of its habitat has been degraded or destroyed. Threatened by fire suppression, invasive non-native plants and an introduced pest scale. Populations mostly very small.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (06Oct2017)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from south Florida. Found in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties (Barneby 1977). Discovered in the Collier County portion of the Big Cypress National Preserve in 1999 (Bradley and Gann 1999 cited by Halupa 2007). It was also historically known from Palm Beach County where it is presumed extirpated (Chafin 2000).

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 5-8 occurrences extant: 3-5 in Miami-Dade County, 1 in Monroe County, and 1-2 in Collier County. The existing occurrences are very small and most, especially those in Miami-Dade County, may not be viable (Halupa 2007). It has been extirpated from 6 sites (Halupa 2007).

Population Size Comments: The total population size is estimated to be between 101-1000 individuals, but is probably closer to 200 to 300 individuals (Bradley and Gann 1999 cited by Halupa 2007). There seem to be only around 150 adult plants and around 500 seedlings of this taxon remaining in Miami-Dade County.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Two sites have over 45 reproductive adults. One site had large seedling recruitment in 2008; 499 seedlings counted (J. Possley, pers. comm., 2008).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Fire suppression and invasive non-native plants are the greatest threats to Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana. Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana does not tolerate shading by hardwoods; with fire suppression, hardwoods eventually invade pine rocklands and shade out understory species like Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana (Halupa 2007). Non-native plants have altered the intensity, magnitude, timing and frequency of fire that occurs in pine rocklands and coastal strand. Dense growth of non-native plants creates immense fire temperatures and longer burning periods which Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana cannot tolerate (Halupa 2002). Non-native plant threats include Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), Burmareed (Neyraudia reynaudiana), Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), and Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum) (Halupa 2002; Halupa 2007). Given its narrow range and the small number of individuals that exist, Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana is also extremely vulnerable to natural catastrophic events such as hurricanes and tropical storms; either one of these events could extirpate existing populations (Halupa 2002). Fairchild Tropical Garden reported in 2008 that one site failing due to lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata), an introduced invasive scale that attacks wood plants in South Florida. Other threats include off-road-vehicles, illegal mountain biking, and wild hog damage (Halupa 2007; Chafin 2000; Gann et al. 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The population is probably declining (Bradley and Gann 1999 cited by Halupa 2007). Invasive exotic plants, an introduced invasive scale pest, and fire suppression have degraded most sites for this variety. Fire management is difficult for the populations in the Miami area even though the plants occur on protected lands.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Most of its habitat has been negatively altered or destroyed by human activity. Pine rocklands in Miami-Dade County have been reduced to about 11 percent of their former extent (Kernan and Bradley 1996 cited by Halupa 2007). Of an estimated historical extent of 74,000 hectares (182,780 acres), only 8,140 hectares (20,106 acres) of pine rocklands remained in 1996 (Halupa 2007). Several historical occurrences have been lost, and the plant is no longer known in Palm Beach County, the former northernmost extent of its range (Halupa 2007).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: The small number of plants at most sites makes these populations vulnerable to stochastic phenomena.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Its southern Florida habitat has few good sites remaining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from south Florida. Found in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties (Barneby 1977). Discovered in the Collier County portion of the Big Cypress National Preserve in 1999 (Bradley and Gann 1999 cited by Halupa 2007). It was also historically known from Palm Beach County where it is presumed extirpated (Chafin 2000).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Miami-Dade (12086)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial semi-woody plant.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Found in pine rocklands, edges of rockland hammocks, coastal uplands, and marl prairie (Chafin 2000).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Aug2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Keith Bradley, rev. A. Olivero and M. Fellows (2003); rev. L. Morse (2005), rev. A. Jenkins (2008), rev. A. Tomaino (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Barneby, R.C. 1977. Daleae imagines. Memoirs New York Botanical Garden 27: 1-891.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Gann, G.D., K.A. Bradley, S.W. Woodmansee. 2002. Rare Plants of South Florida: Their History, Conservation, and Restoration. The Institute for Regional Conservation, Miami, FL. 1056 pgs.

  • Halupa, P. 2002. March-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r4/dalcarfl.pdf. Accessed 2003, February 21.

  • Halupa, P. 2007. April last update. Species Assessment and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candforms_pdf/r4/Q3HL_P01.pdf (accessed 16 August 2008).

  • Isely, D. 1998. Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University; MLBM Press, Provo, Utah. 1007 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana. 10 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2016. Proposed Threatened Species Status for Sideroxylon reclinatum ssp. austrofloridense (Everglades Bully), Digitaria pauciflora (Florida Pineland Crabgrass), and Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. pinetorum (Pineland Sandmat) and Endangered Species Status for Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana (Florida Prairie-Clover). Proposed rule. Federal Register 81(196): 70282-70308.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2017. Endangered Species Status for Dalea carthagenensis var. floridana (Florida Prairie-clover), and Threatened Species Status for Sideroxylon reclinatum ssp. austrofloridense (Everglades Bully), Digitaria pauciflora (Florida Pineland Crabgrass), and Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. pinetorum (Pineland Sandmat). Final Rule. Federal Register 82(193): 46691-46715.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, FL 32611.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

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