Cystopteris laurentiana - (Weatherby) Blasdell
Laurentian Bladderfern
Synonym(s): Cystopteris fragilis var. laurentiana Weatherby ;Cystopteris x laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasd.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cystopteris laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasdell (TSN 17483)
French Common Names: cystoptère laurentienne
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134441
Element Code: PPDRY07040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Filicopsida Filicales Dryopteridaceae Cystopteris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cystopteris laurentiana
Taxonomic Comments: A member of the "Cystopteris fragilis complex," an assemblage of closely-related polyploids. C. laurentiana is a fertile allopolyploid apparently derived from an ancient cross between C. bulbifera and C. fragilis (Cusick, 1987). While sometimes considered a hybrid (as C. x laurentiana), it is better viewed as a fertile species of hybrid origin.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Dec2009
Global Status Last Changed: 14Aug2000
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Scattered, apparently infrequent occurrences from Newfoundland west at least to Minnesota and south as far as Pennsylvania. Reported to be locally abundant in some areas, such as the Driftless area of the midwestern United States and Manitoulin Island, Ontario, but usually considered rare, including Quebec (Laurentians area). Restricted to limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous or alkaline rocks.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (26Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S1), Iowa (SNA), Massachusetts (S2S3), Michigan (S1S2), Minnesota (SNR), Pennsylvania (S1), Vermont (S1), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Labrador (S1S3), New Brunswick (S1), Newfoundland Island (S2), Nova Scotia (S2), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S1S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mostly southern Ontario, east through Quebec to Newfoundland, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, south to eastern Minnesota and Iowa and the northwestern tip of Illinois, east through Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan; also occuring in Vermont, Massachusets, and Pennsylvania in scattered locations (FNA 1993 and Heritage data). Reported by FNA (Vol. 2, 1993) for Connecticut and New Hampshire but these reports seem to be erroneous (no known New Hampshire collections according to Bill Nichols, Dec. 2009; no Connecticut report in Kartesz draft data 2009 or collections in the Univ. of Connecticut online herbarium as of Dec. 2009).

Area of Occupancy: 1-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Estimate based on the fact that Cystopteris laurentiana locations are extremely scattered within the larger range extent and while vertical habitats may be somewhat common within the range, they do not measure large numbers of acres.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Generally considered "rare" overall (e.g., Lellinger, 1985), but reportedly locally frequent in a few areas such as the Driftless Area of midwest America (Flora of North America 1993) or Manitoulin Island, Ontario (Cody and Britton, 1989). May be locally common on the Niagara Escarpment on the north shore of Lake Superior (Mike Oldham, pers. comm., Dec. 2009).

Population Size Comments: "Rare" (Lellinger, 1985), but unclear there whether in terms of number of sites or abundance within better sites.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Restricted to vertical locations and usually calcareous substrates.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mostly southern Ontario, east through Quebec to Newfoundland, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, south to eastern Minnesota and Iowa and the northwestern tip of Illinois, east through Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan; also occuring in Vermont, Massachusets, and Pennsylvania in scattered locations (FNA 1993 and Heritage data). Reported by FNA (Vol. 2, 1993) for Connecticut and New Hampshire but these reports seem to be erroneous (no known New Hampshire collections according to Bill Nichols, Dec. 2009; no Connecticut report in Kartesz draft data 2009 or collections in the Univ. of Connecticut online herbarium as of Dec. 2009).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, MA, MI, MN, PA, VT, WI
Canada LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Dubuque (19061), Jackson (19097), Winneshiek (19191)
IL Lee (17103)
MA Franklin (25011)
MI Chippewa (26033), Dickinson (26043), Houghton (26061), Mackinac (26097), Marquette (26103)
MN Cook (27031), Fillmore (27045), Houston (27055), Lake (27075)*, Olmsted (27109), Rice (27131)*, Washington (27163)*
PA Butler (42019)*, Centre (42027), Pike (42103)*
VT Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007), Lamoille (50015), Washington (50023), Windsor (50027)
WI Ashland (55003), Bayfield (55007), Door (55029), Douglas (55031), Polk (55095), Vernon (55123)*, Waupaca (55135)*, Wood (55141)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 White (01080105)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
02 Lackawaxen (02040103)+*, Bald Eagle (02050204)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, Beaver-Lester (04010102)+*, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Sturgeon (04020104)+, Dead-Kelsey (04020105)+, Lake Superior (04020300)+*, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Menominee (04030108)+, Wolf (04030202)+*, Carp-Pine (04070002)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Connoquenessing (05030105)+*
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Cannon (07040002)+*, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+*, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Castle Rock (07070003)+*, Kickapoo (07070006)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An upright, tufted fern with fronds up to 6 dm long (including the stalk).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff
Habitat Comments: Predominantly found on calcareous sandstone cliffs, on vertical walls, in cracks, and on ledges; also occurs on cliffs, rocky slopes, and shaded outcrops of limestone, sandstone, dolomite, conglomerate, shale, and diabase. Can also inhabit artificial walls such as those of canals or iron furnaces. 0 - 1000 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jul1992
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Gottlieb (1992), rev. L. Morse (2000, 2002); rev. G. Davis (2009)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anonymous. 2002a. Conservation Assessment for Laurentian Brittle Fern (Cystopteris laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasdel). Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 9 (Eastern Region). Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/plants.html

  • Argus, G. W., and D. J. White. 1977. The Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. The National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 64 pp.

  • Blasdell, R.F. 1963. A Monographic Study of the Genus Cystopteris in Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 21 (4):1-76.

  • Blasdell, R.F. 1963. A Monographic Study of the Genus Cystopteris in Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 21 (4):1-76. A63BLA01PAUS.

  • Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Publication 1829/E, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa. 430 pp.

  • Cody, W.J. et D.M. Britton. 1989. Les fougères et les plantes alliées du Canada. Agriculture Canada, publication 1829/F. 452 p.

  • Cody, W.J., Britton, D.M. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. B89COD01PAUS.

  • Cody, W.J., and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and fern allies of Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 430 pp.

  • Eilers, L.J., and D.M. Roosa. 1994. The vascular plants of Iowa: An annotated checklist and natural history. Univ. Iowa Press, Iowa City. 304 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 1. Introduction. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hagenah, D.J. 1961. Spore Studies in the Genus Cystopteris I The distribution of Cystopteris with Non-spiny Spores in North America in Rhodora. 63:181-193. A61HAG01PAUS.

  • Hagenah, D.J. 1961. Spore studies in the genus Cystopteris. I The distribution of Cystopteris with non-spiny spores in North America. Rhodora 63:181-193.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

  • Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Inst. Press. Washington, D.C. B85LEL01PAUS

  • Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the U.S. and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 389 pp.

  • Marie-Victorin, F. 1995. Flore laurentienne. 3rd edition. Presses of Univ. Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 1093 pp.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois. 507 pp.

  • Morton, J.K., and J.M. Venn. 2000. The Flora of Manitoulin Island and the Adjacent Islands of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay and the North Channel. Third Edition. University of Waterloo Biology Series No. 40, Waterloo, Ontario. 376 pp.

  • Peck, J.H. 1982. Ferns and fern allies of the driftless area of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Contrib. in Biology and Geology. Milwaukee Public Mus. No. 53.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • Scott, P.A. 2009. Vascular flora additions and noteworthy collections from Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario. Michigan Botanist 48: 1-32.

  • USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. 2002. Conservation assessment for Laurentian brittle fern (Cystopteris laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasdell). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. September 2002. 27 pp.

  • Weatherby, C.A. 1926. A New North American Variety of Cystopteris Fragilis in Rhodora 28:129-131. A26WEA01PAUS.

  • Weatherby, C.A. 1926. A new North American variety of Cystopteris fragilis in Rhodora 28:129-131.

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