Cyrtandra oenobarba - Mann
Shaggy-stem Cyrtandra
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cyrtandra oenobarba Mann (TSN 34213)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156570
Element Code: PDGES033B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Gesneriad Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Gesneriaceae Cyrtandra
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cyrtandra oenobarba
Taxonomic Comments: Genus found throughout Southeast Asia and much of western Pacific basin, species endemic to Kauai.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Oct2007
Global Status Last Changed: 10Jan1986
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Cyrtandra oenobarba is endemic to the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands where it is only found in three small areas. It is limited to valleys in the interior of the island, where rainfall is very high. There are nine current occurrences. Typical habitat is wet slopes, mossy sites or crevices in rocks near waterfalls. The total number of plants for the species might be between 200 and 500. The species is threatened by feral pigs and invasive alien plant species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Apr2010)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Cyrtandra oenobarba is endemic to the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands. It is limited to valleys in the interior of the island, where rainfall is very high.

Area of Occupancy: 1-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Nine current (1992-2002) occurrences. A new population of about 10 individuals was recently found at Liiliula, Kauai (K. Wood, pers. comm., 2004, cited by Russell 2004).

Population Size Comments: The total number of plants for the species might be between 200 and 500 (Russell 2004).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The species is highly threatened by feral pigs and invasive alien plant species. This species is threatened by feral pigs that adversely modify habitat and prey on it and by alien plants that outcompete and displace it (Russell 2004).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Known declining due to numerous threats, exact percentage is unknown (HBMP 2007).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: The historic range of this species was throughout the island of Kauai (Russell 2004). While there are no historic records of numbers of populations or individuals, qualitative accounts indicate that the species was relatively widespread and abundant (Russell 2004). The species is now limited to three small areas (Russell 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Only found in wet slopes, mossy sites or crevices in rocks near waterfalls.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Cyrtandra oenobarba is endemic to the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands. It is limited to valleys in the interior of the island, where rainfall is very high.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Kauai (15007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Low, decumbent, fleshy subshrubs. Stems becoming subterranean, producing adventitious roots at each node. Flowers 1-2 in cymes, these arranged in dense clusters arising in the leaf axils. Corollas white.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Extremely wet areas with high rainfall. Forests and shrublands. On wet slopes, mossy sites, or crevices in rocks near waterfalls.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Oct2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: J. Lau, rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. A. Tomaino (2006), rev. D. Matsuwaki (2007)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Heller, A.A. 1897. Observations on the ferns and flowering plants of the Hawaiian Islands. Minnesota Bot. Stud. 1: 760-922.

  • Hillebrand, W.F. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams. Facsimile ed., 1981. Lubrecht & Cramer, Monticello, NY. 673 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mann, H. 1867-1868. Enumeration of Hawaiian Plants. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 7: 143-184 (1867), 185-235 (1868).

  • Rock, J.F. 1917. Revision of the Hawaiian species of the genus Cyrtandra, section Cylindrocalyces Hillebr. Amer. J. Bot. 4: 604-623.

  • Russell, C. 2002. February-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Cyrtandra oenobarba. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r1/cyroen.pdf. Accessed 2003, February 21.

  • Russell, C. 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Cyrtandra oenobarba. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. [http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/StateListing.do?state=all&status=candidate]

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Pacific Regional Office Hawaii. Rare Plant Tracking Database. Unpublished.

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.