Cypripedium fasciculatum - Kellogg ex S. Wats.
Clustered Lady's-slipper
Other Common Names: clustered lady's slipper
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cypripedium fasciculatum Kellogg ex S. Wats. (TSN 43543)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159788
Element Code: PMORC0Q060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Cypripedium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cypripedium fasciculatum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Feb2018
Global Status Last Changed: 08Feb1994
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: The species' large overall range and the number of known populations suggest that the taxon is not in immediate danger. However, the small size of most populations, their isolated nature, evidence of decline, and threats including timber harvest and soil disturbing activities, warrant concern for the species' long-term survival throughout its range.  
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S4), Colorado (S3S4), Idaho (S3), Montana (S3), Oregon (S2), Utah (S1), Washington (S3), Wyoming (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in disjunct areas of mountain ranges in the west (Coast Ranges, Cascades, Sierra Nevadas, Rockies), from Washington, Idaho to Montana, Oregon to central California, and Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002).  Falsely reported from British Columbia (Kartesz 1999).

Area of Occupancy: 501-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of extant occurrences is in Oregon 514, Idaho 115, Wyoming 29, and Utah 11 (NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017).  There are 270 observations in Montana which represent 10 moderate to large populations, 3 historical occurrences and many additional small occurrences (Montana Natural Heritage Program 2018).  California does not actively track occurrences but Kaye and Cramer (2005) analyzed 302 California populations in National Forests that were last seen in 1980 or later.  Washington and Colorado watch list the species and have an unknown number of occurrences.

Population Size Comments: "Over half of the populations have fewer than 10 stems and over 90% have fewer than 100 stems" (Gray et al. 2012).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by timber harvest activities, ground disturbing activities such as power line and road construction/maintenance, and high intensity wildfires; Other threats include collecting, trampling, recreation, livestock grazing, fuel reduction practices, alterations to hydrology, mining, and invasive plants (Kaye and Cramer 2005; Lichthardt 2003, Fertig 2000; Vance 2005; CNPS 2018).  "Climate change has the potential to negatively affect population viability for C. fasciculatum, especially in the lower elevation sites" (Gray et al. 2012).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: In a study of 236 Oregon and California populations that were revisited 1 to 29 years after previous visit, 61% of populations declined in size and 34% fell to zero (Gray et al. 2012).  "While some of the populations that were assumed to be extinct may have been dormant, it is unlikely that all individuals in a population would be dormant" (Gray et al. 2012).  Plants in Wyoming are possibly decreasing due to loss of habitat caused by logging. However, recent findings may suggest that the species is more widespread in Wyoming than previously considered (Fertig 2000).

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: In California, this species is mostly found in serpentine seeps and along streambanks in coniferous forest (CNPS 2018).  It has been hypothesized that a species of fungus associated with deer or elk feces is required for seed germination (WANHP 1999). Cypripedium fasciculatum occurs in habitats that burn with some regularity (at least historically). The taxon may be able to survive a low intensity underburn, but not high intensity fires in areas where fuel loading is unnaturally high as a result of decades of fire suppression (WANHP 1999).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in disjunct areas of mountain ranges in the west (Coast Ranges, Cascades, Sierra Nevadas, Rockies), from Washington, Idaho to Montana, Oregon to central California, and Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002).  Falsely reported from British Columbia (Kartesz 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Benewah (16009), Bonner (16017), Clearwater (16035), Idaho (16049), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Shoshone (16079)
MT Lake (30047), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Sanders (30089)
OR Curry (41015)*, Douglas (41019), Jackson (41029), Josephine (41033), Klamath (41035)*
UT Cache (49005)*, Daggett (49009), Salt Lake (49035), Summit (49043), Uintah (49047)
WY Albany (56001), Carbon (56007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+
14 Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+*
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+*, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Upper Weber (16020101)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+
17 Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Flathead Lake (17010208)+, Swan (17010211)+, Lower Flathead (17010212)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Upper Selway (17060301)+*, Lower Selway (17060302)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, Middle Fork Clearwater (17060304)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+, Upper Rogue (17100307)+, Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Applegate (17100309)+, Lower Rogue (17100310)+, Illinois (17100311)+, Chetco (17100312)+*
18 Upper Klamath (18010206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Clustered Lady's-slipper is a perennial with densely hairy, solitary stems, which are 5-20 cm tall and arise from a rhizome. There is a single leaf wrapped around the base of the stem and one pair of sessile, opposite leaves located near the top of the stem; these leaves are broadly elliptic to oval-shaped and are 4-8 cm broad. The 2-4 flowers are tightly clustered at the top of the stem, and each is subtended by a green, lance-shaped bract. The 3 narrowly lance-shaped sepals are 12-25 mm long and greenish brown to purplish with purple lines or spots; the lower 2 are united nearly to the tip. The 2 upper petals are similar to the sepals in shape and color; the lower petal is pouch-shaped, shorter than the sepals, and greenish yellow with brownish-purple margins and often a purple tinge. The ovary and mature capsule are densely hairy.
Technical Description: Plants perennial, stem 0.5-2 dm tall, lanate-pilose, usually with a single sheathing bract near ground level, a pair of opposite leaves at to well above midlength, and often 1 or 2 lanceolate bracts near the inflorescence; obtuse to slightly acute; flowers (1) 2-4 in a rather tight cluster, subtended by conspicuous greenish bracts as long as the densely pilose ovary; sepals lanceolate-acuminate, 12-25mm long, greenish-brown or greenish-purple and usually purple-lined or -mottled, the lower pair fused completely or free at the tips only; petals similar to the sepals but usually somewhat broader; lip depressed ovoid, shorter than the sepals, greenish-yellow with brownish-purple margins and often with purplish tinge; staminodium 2.5-3 mm long, about equalling the longest lobe of the stigma (Hitchcock et. al 1969).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Cypripedium fasciculatum is a distinctive orchid which is easily identifiable in flower and fruit. Its leaves appear to be opposite but they are actually subopposite, joined to the stem almost but not exactly in the same spot about midway up the stem. Species in the genus LISTERA resemble this orchid but are much smaller, have prominent hairs, and flowers arranged in an elongate inflorescence.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Cypripedium fasciculatum maintains a mycorrhizal assocation into maturity (Whitridge and Darlene Southworth 2005).  "Digestion of fungal biomass in root cells supplies C. fasciculatum with substantial proportions of both carbon and nitrogen" (Whitridge and Darlene Southworth 2005).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: C. fasciculatum is found on ultrabasic soils, granitics, schists, limestone and quartz-diorite. Populations have been reported from rocky to loamy soils in damp to dry sites. They are found in mixed evergreen, mixed conifer, and Douglas-fir forests and in pine and black oak stands. Populations are generally found in areas of from 60 -100% shade provided by tree canopy or shrubs (Rice 1984).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: ESTHETIC, Showy wildflower
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to revisit and monitor known populations, and search for new populations.  Maintain tree cover, decayed down logs, and duff in support of mycorrhizal fungi associates (Vance 2005).  Protect habitat around known locations since plants do not appear above ground every year (Vance 2005).  Assess sites to determine whether management is needed to reduce risk of high intensity fire (Vance 2005). 
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Feb2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vrilakas, Sue; rev. R. Bittman 5/2005, rev. A. Tomaino (2018)
Management Information Edition Date: 05Feb2018
Management Information Edition Author: Tomaino, A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Oct1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM (10/94); KH (11/92)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aagaard, J.E., R.J. Harrod, and K.L Shea. 1999. Genetic variation among populations of the rare clustered lady-slipper orchid (Cypripedium fasciculatum) from Washington State, USA. Natural Areas Journal 19(3): 234-238.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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