Cypripedium acaule - Ait.
Pink Lady's-slipper
Other Common Names: moccasin flower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cypripedium acaule Ait. (TSN 43534)
French Common Names: cypripède acaule
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138178
Element Code: PMORC0Q010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Cypripedium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cypripedium acaule
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 24Apr1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Cypripedium acaule has a wide range in eastern Canada and the United States, and is common in parts of this range. It is found in bogs and swamps, and also in drier oak or coniferous woodlands in acidic soil (Homoya 1993). Threats include exploitation for horticultural or medicinal purposes and habitat loss in parts of its range (Homoya 1993; Deborah White, pers. comm. 2002).
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (12Jan2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (S4), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S4), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S4), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S4), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S3), Manitoba (S3S4), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S4), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S4?)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Wide range: from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba across southern Ontario and Quebec, surrounding the Great Lakes region and from Newfoundland down the east coast of the United States to the central Georgia Piedmont.

Population Size Comments: Very common in the acidic soil regions of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,and Prince Edward Island, as well as in central Ontario (Sean Blaney, pers. comm. 2002). Also occurs in many sites on the Cumberland Plateau (Deborah White, pers. comm. 2002).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include habitat destruction (especially new construction) and disturbance, such as competition from exotics such as japanese honeysuckle or alteration of forest habitat through fire suppression (Patrick et al. 1995). Though Cypripedium acaule is advertised by several distributors as available laboratory-propagated, exploitation of wild populations has occurred in the past (Patrick, et al. 1995) and the plants continue to be actively collected for sale (Deborah White, pers. comm. 2002, Al Schotz, pers. comm., 2002). Uses are apparently both horticultural and medicinal. The roots of C. acaule have been used as a sedative, and it is reportedly being sold by "a few companies" despite the 1988 request by the American Herbal Products Association that its members cease using wild-harvested Cypripedium (Medicinal Plant Working Group 2002). In addition, the species is showy and a popular subject for sale in large commercial growers' outlets (often the roots and rhizomes of these plants are sold in such poor condition and the plants will not survive). In some areas, natural populations may be devastated by these unethical practices (Tom Patrick, pers. comm., 2002). At least in eastern Canada, however, the plant remains so common that only a "massive" amount of collecting would impact populations beyond a very local scale (Sean Blaney, pers. comm. 2002).

Short-term Trend Comments: Seems to be moving southward in Georgia with the increase in planting of loblolly pine and use of fire to maintain pine in upland settings (Tom Patrick, pers. comm., 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Seems capable of surviving in landscapes heavily impacted by forestry and of colonizing fairly early successional forest (Sean Blaney, pers. comm., 2002; Al Schotz, pers. comm., 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Wide range: from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba across southern Ontario and Quebec, surrounding the Great Lakes region and from Newfoundland down the east coast of the United States to the central Georgia Piedmont.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Calhoun (01015), DeKalb (01049)*, Jackson (01071)
GA Barrow (13013), Bartow (13015), Chattooga (13055), Cherokee (13057)*, Clarke (13059)*, Clayton (13063), Cobb (13067), Coweta (13077), Dawson (13085), Douglas (13097), Fannin (13111), Floyd (13115)*, Fulton (13121), Gilmer (13123), Gordon (13129)*, Greene (13133)*, Gwinnett (13135), Habersham (13137), Hall (13139), Haralson (13143)*, Henry (13151), Jasper (13159), Lincoln (13181), Lumpkin (13187), Madison (13195)*, Mcduffie (13189), Morgan (13211), Murray (13213), Paulding (13223), Polk (13233), Rabun (13241), Richmond (13245), Rockdale (13247), Stephens (13257), Towns (13281), Union (13291), Walker (13295), White (13311), Whitfield (13313), Wilkes (13317)
IL Mchenry (17111)*, Ogle (17141)*
TN Anderson (47001), Bledsoe (47007), Campbell (47013), Cannon (47015), Carter (47019), Claiborne (47025), Cocke (47029), Coffee (47031), Cumberland (47035), DeKalb (47041), Fentress (47049), Franklin (47051), Grainger (47057), Greene (47059), Grundy (47061), Hamilton (47065), Hawkins (47073), Johnson (47091), Knox (47093), Loudon (47105), Marion (47115), Monroe (47123), Moore (47127), Morgan (47129), Pickett (47137), Polk (47139), Rhea (47143), Roane (47145), Scott (47151), Sequatchie (47153), Sullivan (47163), Unicoi (47171), Union (47173), Van Buren (47175), Washington (47179), White (47185)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Tugaloo (03060102)+, Upper Savannah (03060103)+, Broad (03060104)+, Little (03060105)+, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Upper Oconee (03070101)+, Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)+, Conasauga (03150101)+, Coosawattee (03150102)+, Oostanaula (03150103)+, Etowah (03150104)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+, Upper Tallapoosa (03150108)+
05 Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+, Collins (05130107)+, Caney (05130108)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103)+, Holston (06010104)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207)+, Emory (06010208)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Upper Elk (06030003)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+
07 Lower Rock (07090005)+*, Upper Fox (07120006)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Jul2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ham, V. and K. Maybury (2002)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Atwood, J.T. 1984. The relationships of the slipper orchids (Subfamily Cypripedioideae, Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7: 129-247.

  • Bornbusch, A.H., L.A. Swender, and D.L. Hoogerwerf. 1994. Genetic variation in Massachusetts populations of Cypripedium arietinum R. Brown in Ait. and C. acaule Ait. (Orchidaceae). Rhodora 96(888): 354-369.

  • Bowles, M.L., et al. 1991. Rarely seen endangered plants, rediscoveries, and species new to Illinois. Erigenia 11:27-51.

  • Brown, P.M. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 236 pp.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Davis, R.W. 1986. The pollination biology of CYPRIPEDIUM ACAULE (Orchidaceae). Rhodora 88:445-450.

  • Dore, W.G. 1969. Pink Ladyshippers. Trail & Landscape 3(4): 112-113.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Gupton, O. W., and F. C. Swope. 1986. Wild Orchids of the Middle Atlantic States. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. 105 pp.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 281 pp.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Johnson, L. 1994. Botanical Survey of Lake Superior Provincial Park: An Interpretive Approach. Manuscript. 116 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. The New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Medicinal Plant Working Group. 2002. Green medicine: Medicinal Plants. Available at: http://www.nps.gov/plants/medicinal/index.htm. Accessed July 12, 2002.

  • Morris, F. and E.A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 464 pp.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Primack, R. and P. Hall. 1990. Costs of reproduction in the pink lady's slipper orchid: a four-year experimental study. American Naturalist 136 (5): 638-656.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Reddoch, J.M. and A.H. Reddoch. 1997. The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(1):1-185.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin number 140.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. An Introduction to the Ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Scientific Papers XIV, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois. 89 pp.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers XIV. Ill. State Mus., Springfield, IL. 89pp.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. Notes on some rare Illinois orchids. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 67:122-130.

  • Smith, W.R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 172 pp.

  • St-Arnaud, M et D. Barabe. 1987. Une orchidee du Quebec, le sabot de la vierge (Cypripedium acaule). Quatre-temps (SAJIB) 11 (4): 16-23.

  • Stoutamire, W.P. 1967. Flower biology of the lady's-slippers (Orchidaceae: Cypripedium). Michigan Botanist 6 (4): 159-175.

  • Walshe, S. 1980. Plants of Quetico and the Ontario Shield. Quetico Foundation, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 152 pp.

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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