Cyprinella venusta - Girard, 1856
Blacktail Shiner
Synonym(s): Notropis venustus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cyprinella venusta Girard, 1856 (TSN 163809)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104896
Element Code: AFCJB49210
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 1106

© Howard L. Jelks

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Cyprinella
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cyprinella venusta
Taxonomic Comments: Kristmundsdottir and Gold (1996) used mtDNA restriction site analysis to study systematics and biogeography and identified four major mtDNA-based phylogeographic clades: Chocktawatchee, Apalachicola, Mobile, and Western (four lineages, Texas to Mississippi). They found that mtDNA phylogeographic subdivision within C. venusta is not strictly concordant with geographic subdivisions (ranges) of the three nominal subspecies (venusta, cercostigma, and stigmatura); taxonomic revision may be warranted, but further study is needed. This species was removed from genus Notropis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Cyprinella by Mayden (1989); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). See Mayden (1989) for synonymy.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 18Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4), Illinois (S1), Kentucky (S3), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nevada (SNA), Oklahoma (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from the Rio Grande basin, Texas, to the Suwannee River drainage, Florida and Georgia, and extends north in the Mississippi River basin to southern Oklahoma, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and western and southern Tennessee; introduced in the Sac River (Missouri River drainage), Missouri (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see map in Lee et al. 1980). It is one of the most ubiquitous minnows in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000 and presumably exceeds 1,000,000. This is one of the most abundant minnows in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004), Louisiana, and Texas (Lee et al. 1980).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Overall, this species faces no major threats. In Louisiana, habitat changes associated with flood control projects (e.g., channelization) apparently led to increases in C. lutrensis populations and declines and extirpations of C. venusta populations (Douglas and Jordan 2002).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: In Louisiana, after the 1960s and early 1970s, blacktail shiners disappeared from several locations and abundance declined in other sites coincident with a range expansion and abundance increase in Cyprinella lutrensis (Douglas and Jordan 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from the Rio Grande basin, Texas, to the Suwannee River drainage, Florida and Georgia, and extends north in the Mississippi River basin to southern Oklahoma, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and western and southern Tennessee; introduced in the Sac River (Missouri River drainage), Missouri (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, FL, GA, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, NVexotic, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Ballard (21007), Carlisle (21039), Fulton (21075), Graves (21083), Hickman (21105), McCracken (21145)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Yadkin (03040103), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006)
07 Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014)*, Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Blue-China (11130102), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Lake Texoma (11130210), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Upper Trinity (12030105), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), North Galveston Bay (12040203), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), San Saba (12090109), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lavaca (12100101), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Cibolo (12100304), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Turkey (12110104), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107)
13 Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: In southeastern Mississippi, spawns late March-early October (mainly April-August) at 19-29 C (Heins and Dorsett 1986). Spawns June-August in Missouri. Males defend spawning territories. Produces sounds used in species recognition.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Habitat Comments: This fish is most common in pools and runs of clear, sandy-bottomed, small to medium rivers, typically in areas with sparse vegetation and strong current, but upland populations occur in creeks over substrates with more gravel and rubble (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Populations in the western part of the range are often in turbid water. Eggs are deposited in crevices.
Length: 15 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Nov2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • BROUGHTON, R.R. AND J.R. GOLD. 2000. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CYPRINID GENUS CYPRINELLA (ACTINOPTERYGII: CYPRINIDAE) BASED ON SEQUENCES OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL ND2 AND ND4L GENES. COPEIA 2000:1-10.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Douglas, N. H., and R. J. Jordan. 2002. Louisiana's inland fishes: a quarter century of change. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings (43):1-10.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Heins, D. C., and D. R. Dorsett. 1986. Reproductive traits of the blacktail shiner, NOTROPIS VENUSTUS (Girard) in southern Mississippi. Southwest Naturalist. 31:185-189.

  • KRISTMUNDSDOTTIR, ASRUN YR AND JOHN R. GOLD. 1996. SYSTEMATICS OF THE BLACKTAIL SHINER (CYPRINELLA VENUSTA) INFERRED FROM ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. COPEIA 1996(4):773-783.

  • Kristmundsdottir, A. Y., and J. R. Gold. 1996. Systematics of the blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) inferred from analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Copeia 1996(4):773-783.

  • La Rivers, I. 1994. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. University of Nevada Press, Reno. 782 pp.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Miller, R. J., and H. W. Robison. 2004. Fishes of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 450 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • RHODES, KEVIN AND CLARK HUBBS. 1992. RECOVERY OF PECOS RIVER FISHES FROM A RED TIDE FISH KILL. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 37(2):178-187.

  • RICHARDSON, LINDA R. AND JOHN R. GOLD. 1999. SYSTEMATICS OF THE CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS GROUP (CYPRINIDAE) FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AS INFERRED FROM VARIATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 44:49-56.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • TAYLOR, CHRISTOPHER M. AND NICHOLAS J. GOTELLI. 1994. THE MACRO-ECOLOGY OF CYPRINELLA: CORRELATES OF PHYLOGENY, BODY SIZE, AND GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE. AMER. NAT. 144(4):549-569.

  • VALDES, CANTU, NORA E. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. STRUCTURE AND HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF DEVILS RIVER FISH ASSEMBLAGES. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 42(3):265-278.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Straight, C.A., B. Albanese, and B.J. Freeman. [Internet]. [updated 2009 March 25]. Fishes of Georgia Website, Georgia Museum of Natural History; Accessed May 2010. Online. Available from: http://fishesofgeorgia.uga.edu

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Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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