Cyprinella lutrensis - (Baird and Girard, 1853)
Red Shiner
Synonym(s): Notropis lutrensis
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird and Girard, 1853) (TSN 163792)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105504
Element Code: AFCJB49140
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Cyprinella
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cyprinella lutrensis
Taxonomic Comments: Removed from genus Notropis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Cyprinella by Matthews (1987) and Mayden (1989); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). See Matthews (1987) for information on geographic variation. Broughton and Gold (2000) examined mtDNA variation in Cyprinella and found that this species was not monophyletic and thus may represent multiple species.

C. lepida, recently regarded as a valid species (Matthews 1987), formerly was included in this species. See Mayden (1989) for synonymy.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 18Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (S5), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Oklahoma (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Wyoming (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Mississippi River basin from Wyoming, South Dakota, southern Wisconsin, and Indiana south to Louisiana (but absent in Ozark and Ouachita uplands); Gulf drainages west of the Mississippi River to the Rio Grande, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado, and the Rio Panuco in northeastern Mexico (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been widely introduced in the Colorado River basin, in North Carolina, and elsewhere.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large (greater than 1 million).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Subspecies blairi from Maravillas Creek drainage in the Big Bend region of Texas apparently is extinct, possibly through the effects of introduced Fundulus zebrinus (Miller et al. 1989, Matthews 1987).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Long-term Trend Comments: Where introduced, this species may "swamp-out" native Cyprinella gene pools through hybridization (see Mayden 1989). This species has increased in abundance in the lower Missouri River as a result of human-caused changes in the river (e.g., reservoir construction) (Pflieger and Grace 1987). Introduced populations may be detrimentally impacting native spikedace population in the Gila River system (Douglas et al. 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Mississippi River basin from Wyoming, South Dakota, southern Wisconsin, and Indiana south to Louisiana (but absent in Ozark and Ouachita uplands); Gulf drainages west of the Mississippi River to the Rio Grande, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado, and the Rio Panuco in northeastern Mexico (Page and Burr 2011). This species has been widely introduced in the Colorado River basin, in North Carolina, and elsewhere.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, AR, AZexotic, CO, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, NCexotic, NDexotic, NE, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, OK, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, WY

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107)
05 Vermilion (05120109), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Middle Cedar (07080205)*, Lower Cedar (07080206), Lower Iowa (07080209), Lower Rock (07090005), Green (07090007)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), North Raccoon (07100006)*, South Raccoon (07100007)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Little (08040304), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*
10 Hat (10120108), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Upper White (10140201), Ponca (10150001), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Vermillion (10170102), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Beaver (10190013), Pawnee (10190014), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Upper North Loup (10210006), Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Loup (10210009), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Arikaree (10250001), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Upper Sappa (10250010), Lower Sappa (10250011), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Beaver (10250014), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), West Fork Big Blue (10270203), Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Arkansas (11020002), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Apishapa (11020007), Horse (11020008), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Two Butte (11020013), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Whitewoman (11030002), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001), Upper Cimarron (11040002), Bear (11040005), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208)*, Lower Neosho (11070209), Canadian headwaters (11080001), Cimarron (11080002), Upper Canadian (11080003), Conchas (11080005), Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Middle Canadian-Trujillo (11090101), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Coldwater (11100103), Palo Duro (11100104), Lower Beaver (11100201), Upper Wolf (11100202), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Tierra Blanca (11120101), Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120103), Tule (11120104), Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red (11120105), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), North Pease (11130103), Middle Pease (11130104), Pease (11130105), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), North Wichita (11130204), South Wichita (11130205), Wichita (11130206), Southern Beaver (11130207), Northern Beaver (11130208), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Washita headwaters (11130301), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), North Galveston Bay (12040203), Yellow House Draw (12050001), North Fork Double Mountain Fork (12050003), Double Moutain Fork Brazos (12050004), Running Water Draw (12050005), White (12050006), Salt Fork Brazos (12050007), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Hubbard (12060105), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Beals (12080007), Upper Colorado (12080008), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), South Concho (12090102), North Concho (12090104), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Jim Ned (12090108), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Bernard (12090401), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Aransas Bay (12100405), Mission (12100406), Aransas (12100407), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Middle Nueces (12110105), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002), Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201), Jemez (13020202), Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203), Rio Puerco (13020204), Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211), Caballo (13030101), El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102), Jornada Draw (13030103), Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Big Bend (13040205), Maravillas (13040206), Reagan-Sanderson (13040208), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Dry Devils (13040303), Pecos headwaters (13060001), Upper Pecos (13060003), Taiban (13060004), Arroyo Del Macho (13060005), Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007), Rio Hondo (13060008)*, Rio Felix (13060009), Upper Pecos-Black (13060011), Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001), Lower Rio Grande (13090002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer; probably June-August in Wisconsin, May-August in Illinois, May-October with June-July peak in Kansas and Missouri, April-September in Texas and Oklahoma. One-year-olds spawn in late summer after two-year-olds. Eggs hatch in ca. 105 hours at 24.5 C. May produce several clutches each year. Sexually mature in 1-2 yr.; most breed in second summer, very few in first summer (Mayden 1989). Reproduction by young-of-the-year likely facilitates attainment of numerical dominance in many sites where this species has become established (Marsh-Matthews et al. 2002).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes perennial creeks and small to medium rivers, canals, lakes, ponds, and ephemeral habitats with high turbidity and few competing species; silty, sandy, and rocky pools and runs, sometimes riffles (Sublette et al. 1990, Page and Burr 2011). This species often is the most abundant minnow in a wide variety of low gradient habitats, especially backwaters, creek mouths, and medium-sized streams with sand/silt bottoms. It is uncommon or absent in clear high-gradient streams. It selects water with negligible (or intermittent) flow deeper than 20 cm, and it avoids temperature extremes in summer and winter, but does well in harsh and variable environments when other species disappear (Mayden 1989). Spawning occurs in quiet waters of lakes or streams, often over sunfish nests, clean gravel or sand of riffles, submerged roots or logs, or aquatic plants, or on rocky shorelines in crevices. Eggs sink and adhere to bottom (gravel, sand, or mud). Male defends spawning territory.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various small invertebrates (insects, crustaceans), plant material (digestibility may be low), and microorganisms (Becker 1983). In Virgin River, diet dominated by Ceratopongidae, Simuliidae, and Chironomidae (Greger and Deacon 1988).
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Widely used as a baitfish.
Management Summary
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Species Impacts: Implicated in the decline of the endangered woundfin and Virgin River chub and the special concern Virgin spinedace (USFWS, Federal Register, 13 August 1996).
Management Requirements: Eradication of this species from the Virgin River system, Utah, is needed to ensure long-term survival of native fishes (USFWS, Federal Register, 13 August 1996).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • BROUGHTON, R.R. AND J.R. GOLD. 2000. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CYPRINID GENUS CYPRINELLA (ACTINOPTERYGII: CYPRINIDAE) BASED ON SEQUENCES OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL ND2 AND ND4L GENES. COPEIA 2000:1-10.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

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  • Gido, K. B., D. L. Propst, and M. C. Molles, Jr. 1997. Spatial and temporal variation of fish communications in secondary channels of the San Juan River, New Mexico and Utah. Environmenal Biology of Fishes 49(4): 417-434.

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  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

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  • Pflieger, W. L. and T. B. Grace. 1987. Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River, 1940-1983. Pages 166-181 in W. J. Matthews and D. C Heins (editors). Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

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  • RICHARDSON, LINDA R. AND JOHN R. GOLD. 1995. EVOLUTION OF THE CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS SPECIES-COMPLEX. II. SYSTEMATICS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE EDWARDS PLATEAU SHINER, CYPRINELLA LEPIDA. COPEIA 1995(1):28-37.

  • RICHARDSON, LINDA R. AND JOHN R. GOLD. 1999. SYSTEMATICS OF THE CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS GROUP (CYPRINIDAE) FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AS INFERRED FROM VARIATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 44:49-56.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Rinne, J. N. 1991. Habitat use by spikedace, Meda fulgida (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in southwestern streams with reference to probable habitat competition by red shiner, Notropis lutrensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Southwestern Naturalist 36:7-13.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • TAYLOR, CHRISTOPHER M. AND NICHOLAS J. GOTELLI. 1994. THE MACRO-ECOLOGY OF CYPRINELLA: CORRELATES OF PHYLOGENY, BODY SIZE, AND GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE. AMER. NAT. 144(4):549-569.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

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