Cynosurus echinatus - L.
Bristly Dogtail Grass
Other Common Names: bristly dogstail grass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cynosurus echinatus L. (TSN 41625)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.130974
Element Code: PMPOA1X020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Cynosurus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cynosurus echinatus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, CTexotic, GA, IDexotic, LAexotic, MDexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: In the west, Cynosurus echinatus is associated with the understory of Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystems. It is also known to be aggressively invading rangelands in Idaho, displacing native grasses and forbs and reducing forage for native animals. Little data is available on C. echinatus in the eastern U.S.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 29Apr2009
Evaluator: Fellows, M., minor rev. K. Gravuer (2009)
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Northern Africa, Temperate Asia, Middle East, India, southern Europe (Grin 2001).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: (Sullivan 1992).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No reported ecosystem effects, assumed to be low or insignificant, however, declared one of the worst invasive species (based on significance of impact, difficulty in control or management, and urgency of control or management) in Garry Oak Ecosystems in British Columbia (ESSA 2004).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: May affect herbaceous layer, only grows 20-50 cm tall (Stewart and Hebda, Undated).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Along with Dactylis glomerata, Cynosurus echinatus has become the dominant grass in several Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) assocations (Sullivan 1992). In Idaho, it is aggressively spreading in rangelands, displacing native grasses and forbs (S. Hagle pers. comm. 2009). Forage value appears to be very low (S. Hagle pers. comm. 2009), so community impacts likely extend to native ungulates.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Moderate significance
Comments: Often found in Garry Oak ecosystems (ESSA 2004).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: In several western states including CA, OR, WA and ID, and in the southeast (except for FL) and mid-atlantic states (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: Declared one of the worst invasive species (based on significance of impact, difficulty in control or management, and urgency of control or management) in Garry Oak Ecosystems in British Columbia (ESSA 2004). Also considered an aggressive invader in Idaho rangelands (S. Hagle pers. comm. 2009).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Possibly occurs in as many as 37 ecoregions - inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001), but only confirmed in 16 (NRCS 2004).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Meadows, clearings and open coniferous woodlands, shoreline (Stewart and Hebda, Undated).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Insignificant

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Abundant in disturbed sites (Jimerson and Carothers 2002).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred - greater than 30% of states report Cynosurus echinatus present (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Unknown
Comments: Cattle (feces) (Jimerson and Carothers 2002).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: On Montara Mountain in California, the species has been spreading slowly over the past few years (Kozak 1999). Aggressively spreading in Idaho (S. Hagle pers. comm. 2009).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: On Montara Mountain in California, the species is, so far, restricted to roads and trail edges (Kozak 1999). Abundant in unstable associations (Jimerson and Carothers 2002). Able to persist under a canopy, making it likely to become an especially serious problem on forested rangelands (S. Hagle pers. comm. 2009).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Canada (Kartesz 1999; Stewart and Hebda, Undated), South America, and Australia (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007). A crop weed in Chile (Espinoza 2003).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Declared one of the worst invasive species (based on significance of impact, difficulty in control or management, and urgency of control or management) in Garry Oak Ecosystems in British Columbia (ESSA 2004).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Inferred- being one of the dominant grasses in the plant association, any management will affect all other associated grasses and maybe herbs.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Not ranked
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • ESSA. 2004. Decision support tool for addressing invasive species in Garry Oak and associated ecosystems. ONLINE. http://www.essa.com/projects/descriptions/garryoak/top10.htm. Accessed 2004, February.

  • Espinoza, N. 2003. Group A/1 Resistant Hedgehog Dogtail (Cynosurus echinatus) Chile. for Weedscience.org. ONLINE. http://www.weedscience.org/Case/Case.asp?ResistID=5104. Accessed 2004, February.

  • Jimerson, T.M. and S.K. Carothers. 2002. Northwest California Oak Woodlands: Environment, Species Composition, and Ecological Status. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-184.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kozak, C. 1999. Native Plants of Montara Mountain. ONLINE http:///www.plants.montara.com. Accessed 2004, February.

  • Stewart, H. and R. Hebda. Undated. Grasses of the Columbia Basin of British Columbia. ONLINE. http://livinglandscapes.bc.ca/cbasin/cb_grasses. Accessed 2004, February.

  • Sullivan, J. 1992. Dactylis glomerata. In W.C. Fischer. Compiler. The Fire Effects Information System [Database]. Fire Effects Information System, Missoula, MT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory. ONLINE. Available:http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ Accessed 2004, January.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2001. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/var/apache/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?6438. (Accessed 2004)

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov) . National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

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