Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale - (Fern.) Cooperrider
Northern Wild Comfrey
Other English Common Names: Wild Comfrey
Other Common Names: wild comfrey
Synonym(s): Andersonglossum boreale (Fernald) Jim.Mejías, J.I. Cohen & Naczi ;Cynoglossum boreale Fern.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale (Fern.) Cooperrider (TSN 527624)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159663
Element Code: PDBOR0B081
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Borage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Boraginaceae Cynoglossum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale
Taxonomic Comments: Sometimes considered the distinct species Cynoglossum boreale; treated by Kartesz (1994 checklist) as Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale. Cohen (2015) elevates C. virginianum var. boreale (= Andersonglossum boreale) to full species level.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T4T5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Aug2002
Global Status Last Changed: 04Sep2002
Rounded Global Status: T4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This northern variety of Cynoglossum virginianum is widespread in Canada and many northern states of the U.S. Its range, however, is seemingly retreating northward. More information on the status of this taxon in the central portion of its range is needed.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (19Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Maine (S1), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (SH.1), New York (S1S2), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SH), Pennsylvania (SH), South Dakota (S4), Vermont (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (S1), British Columbia (S4), Manitoba (S3S4), New Brunswick (S1), Newfoundland Island (S1), Nova Scotia (S1), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S1), Yukon Territory (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Widespread in Canada and also found in the northern United States from Maine to South Dakota (Kartesz 1999). Thought to be extirpated in Pennsylvania (Rhoads and Klein 1993) and Massachusetts (Abrams and Brumback 2001).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Abundant in Canada (>100 occurrences), county records in North Dakota (2), South Dakota (1), Michigan (33), Minnesota (12 counties, 38 records total), Wisconsin, Ohio (2), New York (2--1A, 1BC, 1C), Vermont (2--1A, 1C), New Hampshire (1), Massachusetts, Maine.

Population Size Comments: Occurs throughout Canada and in northern states of the United States.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Primary threats to this species include forest succession and invasion by exotic weeds. Threats in New England may include canopy closure, fire suppression, and logging (Abrams and Brumback 2001).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: More historical sites than extant sites in northern states. Extirpated in Pennsylvania (Rhoads and Klein 1993). In New England, populations that have been surveyed for a number of years are declining rapidly (Abrams and Brumback 2001).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Widespread in Canada and also found in the northern United States from Maine to South Dakota (Kartesz 1999). Thought to be extirpated in Pennsylvania (Rhoads and Klein 1993) and Massachusetts (Abrams and Brumback 2001).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, IA, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SD, VT, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Berkshire (25003), Franklin (25011)*, Hampshire (25015)*, Worcester (25027)*
ME Androscoggin (23001)*, Aroostook (23003), Franklin (23007), Kennebec (23011)*, Oxford (23017)*, Penobscot (23019)*, Piscataquis (23021), Somerset (23025), York (23031)
NH Carroll (33003)*, Coos (33007), Grafton (33009)*
NJ Passaic (34031)*, Sussex (34037)*
NY Albany (36001)*, Cattaraugus (36009)*, Chautauqua (36013)*, Chemung (36015)*, Clinton (36019), Dutchess (36027)*, Erie (36029)*, Essex (36031)*, Genesee (36037)*, Greene (36039)*, Jefferson (36045)*, Lewis (36049), Onondaga (36067)*, Orange (36071)*, Schenectady (36093)*, Schoharie (36095)*, Schuyler (36097)*, Tioga (36107)*, Tompkins (36109)*, Ulster (36111)*, Warren (36113)*, Washington (36115)*
OH Perry (39127)*
PA Centre (42027)*, Lackawanna (42069)*, Luzerne (42079)*, Pike (42103)*, Sullivan (42113)*, Wyoming (42131)*
SD Lawrence (46081), Meade (46093), Pennington (46103)
VT Addison (50001)*, Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007)*, Grand Isle (50013), Orange (50017)*, Rutland (50021)
WY Crook (56011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001)+*, Fish (01010003)+*, Aroostook (01010004)+, Meduxnekeag (01010005)+*, Lower Penobscot (01020005)+*, Upper Kennebec (01030001)+, Lower Kennebec (01030003)+*, Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+*, Saco (01060002)+*, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+*, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Mohawk (02020004)+*, Schoharie (02020005)+*, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Rondout (02020007)+*, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+*, Bald Eagle (02050204)+*, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301)+*
04 Cattaraugus (04120102)+*, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+*, Niagara (04120104)+*, Seneca (04140201)+*, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)+*, Indian (04150303)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+*, Otter Creek (04150402)+*, Ausable River (04150404)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+*, Hocking (05030204)+*
10 Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Plant, dicot, Boraginaceae; perennial, pubescent herb with terminal blue flowers.
General Description: This is a perennial wildflower that grows 1-2 feet high. The leaves at the base of the plant are 4-8 inches long and oval-shaped, with long petioles and a rough surface. They are 1-3 inches wide. There are also a few leaves on the flowering stems which are more lance-shaped. The upper leaves have heart-shaped bases that clasp the stem, the lower ones have short petioles. At the top of the leafless portion of the stem are a few branches with a group of small, 3/8" wide, five-petaled, blue flowers at the ends. The petal lobes are oblong and do not overlap.The fruit consists of four bristly nutlets.
Habitat Comments: Borders and openings of coniferous or mixed woods, in sandy or rocky soil.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Aug2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S.L. Neid, rev. A. Olivero
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Sep2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Weldy, T.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Abrams, E. and W. E. Brumback. 2001. Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale (Northern Wild Comfrey Conservation and Research Plan. New England Plant Conservation Program, Framingham, Massachusetts.

  • Cody, W.J. 1994. The flora of the Yukon Territory: Additions, range extensions, and comments. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 108:428-467.

  • Cody, W.J. 1994. The flora of the Yukon Territory: Additions, range extensions, and comments. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 108:428-467.

  • Cohen, J.I. 2015. Adelinia and Andersonglossum (Boraginaceae), two new genera from New World species of Cynoglossum. Systematic Botany 40(2): 611-619.

  • Cohen, J.I. 2015. Adelinia and Andersonglossum (Boraginaceae), two new genera from New World species of Cynoglossum. Systematic Botany 40(2): 611-619.

  • Cooperrider, T.S. 1984. Some species mergers and new combinations in the Ohio flora. The Michigan Botanist 23:165-168.

  • Cooperrider, T.S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 2: Linaceae through Campanulaceae. Ohio State University Press. Oxford, Ohio.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.D. Straley, D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1998. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 2, Dicotyledons (Balsaminaceae through Cucurbitaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For. Res. Program. 401pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Canada.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Jiménez-Mejías, P., J.I. Cohen, and R.F.C. Naczi. 2017. The study of online digitized specimens revalidates Andersonglossum boreale as a species different from A. virginianum (Boraginaceae). Phytotaxa 295(1): 22-34.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Larson, G. E. and J. R. Johnson. 1999. Plants of the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains. South Dakota State University College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences & South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Brookings, SD.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr. and J.F. Burns. 1984. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants. Abstracts of State-listed Taxa. Department of Natural Resources. Columbus, Ohio.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Morton, J.K. et J.M. Venn. 1990. A checklist of the flora of Ontario. Vascular plants. University of Waterloo Biology Series no 34 218

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Ode, David J. 2001. Forest Service Sensitive Species Evaluation forms for 98 Vascular Plants found in South Dakota.  Unpublished documents provided to the USDA Forest Service, Region 2, Denver, CO.

  • Porsild, A.E. 1951. Botany of southeastern Yukon adjacent to the Canol Road. National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 121. Canada Department of Resources and Development, Ottawa. 400pp.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W. Klein. 1993. Atlas of the Flora of Pennsylvania: An Annotated Checklist. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin number 140.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Tatina, R., V. Coenen, N. Tashe, K. Barton, C. Dockrill, A. Joynt, and B. Leoppky. 2004. First record of northern wild comfrey from Wyoming. Prairie Naturalist 36: 125-127.

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills Bulletin 61.

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 622 pp.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

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