Cynanchum rossicum - (Kleopov) Borhidi
European Swallow-wort
Other English Common Names: Dog-Strangle Vine, Pale Swallow-wort
Other Common Names: European swallow-wort
Synonym(s): Cynanchum medium R. Br. ;Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich (TSN 501902)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161289
Element Code: PDASC050Z0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Dogbane Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Gentianales Apocynaceae Cynanchum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cynanchum rossicum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Michigan (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA)
Canada New Brunswick (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MIexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic
Canada NBexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Medium
Rounded I-Rank: High
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Cynanchum rossicum appears to cause significant effects in only a small portion of the U.S.; however, it is reportedly spreading. Effective management strategies stress that prevention of establishment is critical to controlling this species. Special attention should be placed on natural areas downwind of infested sites.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 06Apr2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe (IPANE 2001), specifically the Ukraine and southwestern European Russia (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: (IPANE 2001; Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: "Large-scale ecosystem modification appears obvious, but has not been studied" (Lawlor 2001).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: Vine (Kartesz 1999) up to 5 feet in length (IPANE 2001). Can rapidly overgrow native vegetation (IPANE 2001). Can overgrow shrubs (Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Can dominante the understory of a woodland (IPANE 2001). Forms near-monospecific stands where well established (Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004). Can form large areas of monoculture (Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: The Monarch butterfly will lay it's eggs on Cynanchum spp., but larvae will not develop properly (Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Moderate significance
Comments: Often found in disturbed systems can be associated with rivers and stream floodplains (IPANE 2001; Lawlor 2001; Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003). Also found in alvar systems of northern NY; oak openings in central NY (Lawlor 2001; J. Randall, pers comm.)

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance
Comments: In 9 states in eastern US (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High/Low significance
Comments: Large populations are in New York and Toronto (Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: Potentially in 13 ecoregions (inferred from Kartesz 1999 and TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Abandoned fields, early successional forests, edges, floodplain forests, forest wetlands, pastures, planted forests, roadsides, vacant lots and yards (IPANE 2001).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: First recorded in 1881 in CT, since then has spread throughought New England (IPANE 2001). Has become increasingly invasive around Great Lakes (Lawlor and Raynal 2002). Recent expansion in Ottawa (Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Moderate significance
Comments: (J. Randall, pers. comm.)

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Spread by wind or deliberate plantings (IPANE 2001; Vermont Agency for Natural Resources 2003). Inadvertent transport in hay shipments may increase introductions to new areas (Lawlor 2001).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Moderate significance
Comments: Has increased over the last 50-100 years (Lawlor 2001).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Associated with disturbances, even in natural areas (Vermont Agency of Natural Resources 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Present in Canada (Kartesz 1999) in similar habitats (Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Resprouts (IPANE 2001). Seedling density can be as high as 335/25 cm square (Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004). Whereas seed production density can be 1330 to 2090 seeds per square meter (Lawlor 2001).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Resprouts after cutting making control difficult (IPANE 2001). Can apply foliar herbicide for effective reduction, but will need repeat application (Lawlor and Raynal 2002). Manual removal is only effective if all of root crown is also removed, however, mowing and covering the plants also significantly reduced biomass - although none of the 3 removed it entirely (Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Low significance
Comments: Inferred- repeated visits mentioned by Vermont Agency of Natural Resources 2003 and Fletcher Wildlife Garden 2004.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Use of herbicides could cause non-target damage.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fletcher Wildlife Garden. 2004. Research: Control of Invasives. Available ONLINE: http://home.achilles.net/ofnc/fletcher/research.php. Accessed April 2004.

  • Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). 2001. List of species of interest. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/NPS_list.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. Vol. 2. The biota of North America. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 500 pp.

  • Lawlor, F. 2001. Element stewardship abstract for Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich. Swallow-wort. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 13 pp. Available ONLINE http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/.

  • Lawlor, F.M. and D.J. Raynal. 2002. Response of swallow-wort to herbicides. Weed Science 50(2):179-185.

  • Pringle, J.S. 1973. The spread of Vincetoxicum species (Asclepiadeceae) in Ontario. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 87: 27-33.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Vermont Agency for Natural Resources. 2003. Vermont Invasive Exotic Plant Fact Sheet Series. Available ONLINE: http://www.uvm.edu/mastergardener/invasives/invasivesdocuments/Exotic%20fact%20sheets%202003%20no%20page%20numbers.pdf Accessed April 2004.

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