Cygnus columbianus - (Ord, 1815)
Tundra Swan
Synonym(s): Olor columbianus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) (TSN 174987)
French Common Names: cygne siffleur
Spanish Common Names: Cisne de Tundra
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105749
Element Code: ABNJB02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 10696

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Cygnus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cygnus columbianus
Taxonomic Comments: C. columbianus and C. bewickii are sometimes considered distinct species (AOU 1983, 1998). See Meng et al. (1990) for information on variability of DNA fingerprints in C. cygnus, C. olor, and C. columbianus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N3N,N5M (04Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRN), Alaska (S4B), Arizona (S1S2N), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Delaware (S3N), District of Columbia (S2N), Georgia (S3), Idaho (S4M,S4N), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maryland (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S1N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S5N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNRN), Oregon (S4N), Pennsylvania (S3N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S1N), Utah (S3N), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4N), West Virginia (S2N), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S2N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S3N), Manitoba (S4B), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nunavut (S5B,S5M), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S5M), Yukon Territory (S4B,S3M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: Alaska and Canadian low Arctic; northern Russia east along Arctic coast to northern Siberia. WINTERS: mainly on Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America from southern British Columbia to California and from New Jersey to South Carolina; Eurasia south to British Isles, northern Europe, southeastern Asia. Accidental in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and elsewhere (AOU 1998). In the U.S., primary wintering areas include the Atlantic coast from northern South Carolina to southern New Jersey, the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake, and central and northern California (Root 1988).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: See Johnson and Herter (1989) for population numbers in Beaufort Sea region. North American population numbers roughly 150,000-170,000.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Mid-winter population index was increasing in the 1980s for the eastern population, well above USFWS management objective for both eastern and western populations (USFWS 1988). North American population now believed to be stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: Alaska and Canadian low Arctic; northern Russia east along Arctic coast to northern Siberia. WINTERS: mainly on Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America from southern British Columbia to California and from New Jersey to South Carolina; Eurasia south to British Isles, northern Europe, southeastern Asia. Accidental in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and elsewhere (AOU 1998). In the U.S., primary wintering areas include the Atlantic coast from northern South Carolina to southern New Jersey, the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake, and central and northern California (Root 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Custer (16037), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Nez Perce (16069), Valley (16085)
WA Adams (53001)+, Asotin (53003)+, Clark (53011)+, Cowlitz (53015)+, Grant (53025)+, Lincoln (53043)+, Pacific (53049)+, Skagit (53057)+, Skamania (53059)+, Spokane (53063)+
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+
17 Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Hangman (17010306), Little Spokane (17010308), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Salt (17040105)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108), Rock (17060109), Upper Salmon (17060201)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001), Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003), Lower Willamette (17090012), Willapa Bay (17100106), Lower Skagit (17110007), Puget Sound (17110019)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to June. Female incubates 5, sometimes 3-7 eggs for 30-32 days. Peak hatching usually is in late June-early July in Beaufort Sea region. Single-brooded. Young can fly at about 9-10 weeks, remain with the adults until the following spring (Harrison 1978). Probably first breeds at 3 years (may establish territory at 2 years). Substantial portion of birds in breeding areas may be nonbreeders. Highest nest density in Alaska: 1.5 nests per sq km in Yukon-Kuskokwim River delta (see Johnson and Herter 1989).
Ecology Comments: May gather in large flocks to feed. Family groups of 6-7 individuals may form flocks and move together.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Nearly all swans nesting along Beaufort Sea coast winter on Atlantic coast and migrate through Mackenzie Valley and along Yukon coast in spring (Johnson and Herter 1989). Northward migration over interior U.S. usually occurs in March-April. May arrive in some nesting areas as early as March; begins to arrive in Beaufort Sea area mid- to late May (Johnson and Herter 1989). Fall migration in Beaufort Sea region September-October; nesters from northeastern Alaska and Yukon North Slope migrate south through Mackenzie Valley to Peace-Athabasca delta, Alberta, where they apparently mix with western Alaska birds that nested in Yukon River delta; both populations congregate in large numbers at lakes Claire and Richardson in Peace-Athabasca delta before continuing overland to wintering areas (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Habitat Comments: Lakes, sloughs, rivers, sometimes fields, in migration. Open tundra marshy lakes and ponds and sluggish streams in summer. Shallow lakes, ponds, and estuaries in winter. Breeds on tundra near open water. Usually nests on islets or along shoreline of ponds, but may nest as far as 1/2 mile from water. The nest is a mound (1-2 ft x 2-3 ft) of mosses, grasses, and sedges (Terres 1980). Same site may be used in successive years.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Feeds primarily on aquatic plants. Sago pondweed is a favorite food during brood-rearing period and molt (Johnson and Herter 1989). Also eats grasses, sedges and thin-shelled mollusks. Forages while swimming on the surface of the water, with head and neck below surface; roots and digs at plants, stimulating their growth.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 132 centimeters
Weight: 7100 grams
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: See Castelli and Applegate (1989) for information on economic loss caused by swans feeding in cranberry bogs.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Swans and Geese

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map Foraging Areas in separate polygons from the nest site if they are separated from the nest by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas and foraging areas used during the nesting season, but the separation distance is based on nesting-area polygons. Thus different occurrences may overlap if birds from different nesting areas travel to the same foraging area during the nesting season. The separation distance is arbitrary but is intended to yield occurrences that are not impracticably large for conservation purposes.

Canada Geese usually forage near nest site, but adults will forage up to 8 kilometers away (Williams and Sooter 1941, Hammond and Mann 1956) and young will occasionally travel up to 16 kilometers to a foraging area as well (Palmer 1976). Mean home ranges of brood-rearing Snow Geese ranged from 6.6 to 21.7 square kilometers on Bylot Island (Hughes et al. 1994).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on the conservative, smaller mean home range for Snow Geese of 6.6 square kilometers (Hughes et al. 1994).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S. and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Some swans - Cygnus buccinator, in particular - have known migratory routes and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes.
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging area, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 50 birds occur regularly for at least 20 days per year would be deemed EOs.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations. Swans and geese can travel considerable distances on a daily basis; in winter, flocks of Canada Geese foraged up to 48 km from roost in Texas (Glazener 1946).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Wintering site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Overlaps with Nonbreeding LUC, but some swans - Cygnus buccinator in particular - have distinct wintering and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des oiseaux du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 13 pages.

  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I.McT. Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia, Vol. 1. Nonpasserines: Introduction, Loons through Waterfowl. Royal B.C. Mus. in association with Environ. Can., Can. Wildl. Serv. 514pp.

  • Canadian Wildlife Service. 1995. Last Mountain Lake and Stalwart National Wildlife Areas: Bird Checklist - Fourth Edition. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

  • Castelli, P. M., and J. E. Applegate. 1989. Economic loss caused by tundra swans feeding in cranberry bogs. Trans. Northeast Sect. Wildl. Soc. 46:17-23.

  • DICKINSON, MARY B., ED. 1999. FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA, 3RD ED. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 480 PP.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Faber, R. A. 1985. Preliminary assessment of sources of lead contamination in tundra swans frequenting the weaver bottoms. Final report submitted to Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame Wildlife Program. 16 pp.

  • Faber, Richard A. 1985. Preliminary Assessment of Sources of Lead Contamination in Tundra Swans Frequenting the Weaver Bottoms. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in unpublished report.

  • Glazener, W. C. 1946. Food habits of wild geese on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 10:322-329.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Godfrey, W.E. 1966. The birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada. Ottawa. 428 pp.

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  • Hughes, R. J., A. Reed, and G. Gauthier. 1994. Space and habitat use by Greater Snoow Goose broods on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:536-545.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Johnson, S. R. and D. R. Herter. 1989. The Birds of the Beaufort Sea. BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 372 pp.

  • Kortright, F.H. 1967. The ducks, geese, and swans of North America. The Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, PA, and Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C. 476 pp.

  • Limpert, R.J. and S.L. Earnst. 1994. Tundra Swan; The Birds of North America. Vol. 3, No. 89. American Orinithologists' Union. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

  • Lumsden, H. G. 1984. The pre-settlement breeding distribution of trumpeter, CYGNUS BUCCINATOR, and tundra swans, C. COLUMBIANUS, in eastern Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 98:415-424.

  • McAtee W.L. 1959. Folk - names of candian birds. National Museum of Canada. Folk - names of candian birds. National Museum of Canada. 74 pages.

  • Meng, A., R. E. Carter, and D. T. Parkin. 1990. The variability of DNA fingerprints in three species of swan. Heredity 64:73-80.

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  • North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 1998. Expanding the vision 1998 update. Canadian Wildlife Service. 32 pp.

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  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Peterson, R. T. 1980. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pages.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Pratt, H. D., P. L. Bruner, and D. G. Berrett. 1987. A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 409 pp. + 45 plates.

  • Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 511 pp.

  • Root, T. 1988. Atlas of wintering North American birds: An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. University of Chicago Press. 336 pp.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • THOMPSON,M.C., AND C. ELY.1989. BIRDS IN KANSAS VOLUME ONE.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1988. SEIS 88. Final supplemental environmental impact statement: issuance of annual regulations permitting the sport hunting of migratory birds. x + 340 pp.

  • Williams, C. S., and C. A. Sooter. 1941. Canada Goose habitats in Utah and Oregon. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 5:383-387.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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