Cyanea kuhihewa - Lammers
Limahuli Valley Cyanea
Other Common Names: Haha
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cyanea kuhihewa Lammers (TSN 565111)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138871
Element Code: PDCAM042T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Campanulales Campanulaceae Cyanea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cyanea kuhihewa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GHC
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Oct2007
Global Status Last Changed: 19May2006
Rounded Global Status: GH - Possibly Extinct
Reasons: Cyanea kuhihewa was known only from its type locality in Limahuli Valley on the island of Kauai, state of Hawaii, however, as of 2003 it was extirpated from the wild. It was found in lowland wet forest dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha (`Ohi`a) (Russell 2002). As of 1997, six individuals remained, and in 2003 no individuals were extant. Its habitat is threatened by feral pigs and invasive alien plants. While this species is extirpated from the wild it still exists in a single cultivation at Cincinnati (USFWS 2006). The U.S. Fish and Wilflife Service is working with the landowner where the last population was known to control weeds and to eventually reintroduce the species.
Nation: United States
National Status: NH

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (SH)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Apr2010)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from the type locality in Limahuli Valley on the island of Kauai, state of Hawaii. As of 2003, there were no known extant occurrences of this species (Russell 2004).

Area of Occupancy: 0 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 0 (zero)
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is no longer extant in the wild. It was known from it's type locality on Kauai, Hawaii, however, as of 2003 the last individual died (Russell 2004).

Population Size Comments: As of 1997 six individuals remained. As of 2003, no individuals existed in the wild (Russell 2004).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None (zero)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The species was threatened by feral pigs and invasive alien plants. One of the weeds that is a serious threat to Cyanea kuhihewa is Clidemia hirta (Kosters curse) which forms a dense understory, shading out other plants and hindering plant regeneration (Russell 2002). Rats and slugs are also a threat to Cyanea kuhihewa and other members of the bellflower family in Hawaii; they will eat any portion of the plant (Russell 2002). These threats still exist in the habitat where Cyanea kuhihewa occurred, and if there are undiscovered occurrences/subpopulations these threats probably exist to those as well.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Short-term Trend Comments: This species is now considered extirpated as the last individual died in the wild in 2003. Additional populations may be found with further surveys (Russell 2004).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from the type locality in Limahuli Valley on the island of Kauai, state of Hawaii. As of 2003, there were no known extant occurrences of this species (Russell 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Kauai (15007)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Kauai (20070000)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A treelet, 0.35-2.25 m tall. Leaf blades linear, 31-38 cm long, 1.2-1.5 cm wide. Racemes axillary, with 5-8 flowers. Corollas rose-purple.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: The only known occurrence is located on the bank of a stream in wet forest.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Oct2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: JQCL, rev. A. Olivero (2002), rev. L. Oliver (2006), rev. D. Matsuwaki (2007)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lammers, T.G. 1996. A new linear-leaved Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from Kaua'i, and the rediscovery of Cyanea linearifolia. Brittonia 48(2):237-240.

  • Russell, C. 2002. February-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Cyanea kuhihewa. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r1/cyakuh.pdf. Accessed 2003, February 21.

  • Russell, C. 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form for Cyanea kuhihewa. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office.

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