Crystallaria cincotta - Welsh and Wood, 2008
Diamond Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.831356
Element Code: AFCQC07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Crystallaria
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Welsh, S. A., and R. M. Wood. 2008. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia. Zootaxa 1680:62-68.
Concept Reference Code: A08WEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Crystallaria cincotta
Taxonomic Comments: This species formerly was included in Crystallaria asprella; it was named as a distinct species by Welsh and Wood (2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 30Aug2009
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Very small known range in West Virginia; extirpated from most of historical range; major threats include siltation from incompatible land-use practices.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (30Aug2009)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (SX), Ohio (SX), Tennessee (SX), West Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (26Jul2013)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R5 - Northeast
IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: An extant population exists in the Elk River of Kanawha River drainage, below Sutton Dam, Kanawha and Clay counties, West Virginia; extirpated populations occurred in the Muskingum River, Ohio; Ohio River, Ohio; Green River, Kentucky; and the Cumberland River drainage, Kentucky and Tennessee (Cincotta and Hoeft 1987, Osier 2005, Welsh et al. 2009, Page and Burr 2011, USFWS 2011).

Area of Occupancy: 5-100 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The only extant population occupies the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia (Welsh and Wood 2008).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by only one extant population (Welsh et al. 2009).

Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown; the species is rare. Despite targeted sampling efforts, only 19 individuals have been collected in the last 30 years since the species was first collected in the Elk River (USFWS 2011). Twelve individuals were collected between 1980 and 2005, and through mid-2011, an additional 7 specimens have been collected (USFWS 2011).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The Elk River watershed is threatened with ongoing water quality degradation and habitat loss from activities such as coal mining, oil and gas development, siltation from these and other sources, inadequate sewage and wastewater treatment, and direct habitat loss and alteration through activities such as bridge construction. The impoundment of rivers in the Ohio River Basin, such as the Kanawha, Ohio, and Cumberland, has eliminated much of the species' habitat and isolated the existing population from other watersheds that the species historically occupied. Invasive species such as the diatom "didymo" have the potential to impact the Elk River and diamond darter habitat. The small size and restricted range of the remaining diamond darter population make it particularly susceptible to the effects of genetic inbreeding, as well as potential extirpation from spills and other catastrophic events. The species is vulnerable to over utilization for scientific purposes, however the significance of this threat has been reduced and can be further minimized through the administration of existing scientific collecting permit procedures. Existing federal and state regulatory mechanisms do not currently provide protections for the species or its habitat. Source: USFWS (2011).

Extirpation in Ohio probably was due to increased silt loads which smothered sandy riffles, sand-bottomed pools, and extensive sand bars (Trautman 1981).

Grandmaison et al. (2003) reported that siltation from current land-use practices is a major concern for conservation of Crystallaria in the Elk River drainage.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is unknown but likely declining. Three generations is perhaps less than 10 years or not much more 10 years.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species no longer occurs in most of its historical range (Welsh et al. 2009). The species was last collected in Kentucky in 1929 (Burr and Warren 1986) and in Tennessee in 1939 (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) An extant population exists in the Elk River of Kanawha River drainage, below Sutton Dam, Kanawha and Clay counties, West Virginia; extirpated populations occurred in the Muskingum River, Ohio; Ohio River, Ohio; Green River, Kentucky; and the Cumberland River drainage, Kentucky and Tennessee (Cincotta and Hoeft 1987, Osier 2005, Welsh et al. 2009, Page and Burr 2011, USFWS 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KYextirpated, OHextirpated, TNextirpated, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Boone (21015)*, Boyd (21019)*, Edmonson (21061)*, Green (21087)*, Greenup (21089)*, Lyon (21143)*
TN Clay (47027)*, Jackson (47087)*, Scott (47151)*
WV Clay (54015), Kanawha (54039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Muskingum (05040004)*, Elk (05050007)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Upper Green (05110001)+*, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+*, Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106)+*, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes clean sand, gravel, and cobble runs of small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011). This darter has been collected from riffles and pools with <1.5 meter depth, moderate flow, and sand, gravel, and cobble substrates (Osier 2005). Based on habitats used by its sister species (C. asprella), it may also use areas of deeper pool and run habitats (Welsh et al. 2009).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Jun2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cincotta, D. A., and M. E. Hoeft. 1987. Rediscovery of the crystal darter, Ammocrypta asprella, in the Ohio River Basin. Brimleyana 13:133-136.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Evermann, B. W. and O. P. Jenkins. 1892. Notes on Indiana Fishes. Biennial Report of the State Fish Commissioner 1892:108-127.

  • George, S. G., W. T. Slack, and N. H. Douglas. 1996. Demography, habitat, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism of the crystal darter, CRYSTALLARIA ASPRELLA (Jordan), from south-central Arkansas. Copeia 1996: 68-78.

  • Grandmaison, D., J. Mayasich, and D. Etnier. 2003. Crystal darter status assessment report. NRRI Technical Report No. NRRI/TR-2003/19.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Osier, E. A. 2005 Distribution and habitat use of the crystal darter (Crystallaria asprella) and spotted darter (Etheostoma maculatum) in the Elk River, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Simons, A. M. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships of the crystal darter, Crystallaria asprella (Teleostei: Percidae). Copeia 1991:927-936.

  • Simons, A. M. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of the Boleosoma species group (Percidae: Etheostoma). Pages 268-292 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Turner, T. F. 1997. Mitochondrial control region sequences and phylogenetic systematics of darters (Teleostei: Percidae). Copeia 1997:319-338.

  • Welsh, S. A., R. M. Wood, and K. R. Sheehan. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Crystallaria cincotta Welsh and Wood 2008 (Percidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 84:191-192.

  • Welsh, S.A., and R.M. Wood. 2008. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia.

  • Wiley, E. O. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of the Percidae (Teleostei: Perciformes): a preliminary hypothesis. Pages 247-267 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Wiley, E. O., III, and D. D. Hall. 1975. Fundulus blairae,a new species of the Fundulus nottii complex (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae). American Museum Novitates No. 2577. 13 pp. + 5 figs., 9 tables.

  • Wood, R. M., and R. L. Mayden. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among selected darter subgenera (Teleostei: Percidae) as inferred from analysis of allozymes. Copeia 1997:265-274.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

  • Welsh, S. A., and R. M. Wood. 2008. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia. Zootaxa 1680:62-68.

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